Long-Term Assessment of Electrocardiographic and Echocardiographic Findings in Norwegian Elite Endurance AthletesBjørnstad H.H. · Bjørnstad T.H. · Urheim S. · Hoff P.I. · Smith G. · Maron B.J.
aDepartment of Heart Diseases, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, bDepartment of Circulation and Medical Imaging, University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, cDepartment of Cardiology, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Oslo, and dHeart and Lung Centre, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; eMinneapolis Heart Institute Foundation, Minneapolis, Minn., USA
Objectives: The long-term outcome and clinical significance of athlete’s heart has been debated and more longitudinal data are needed. We present a prospective 15 years’ follow-up study of ECG and echo findings in elite endurance athletes following the end of their competitive career. Methods: Clinical evaluation, ECG, ambulatory Holter recording and echocardiography were performed in 30 top-level endurance athletes with a mean age of 24 years with follow-up 15 years later. All had then ended their competitive career, but still performed recreational sports activities. Results: No clinical events were reported. Average resting heart rate was unchanged (53.5 ± 10 at baseline and 55.4 ± 11 at follow-up, p = n.s.), complex ventricular arrhythmias did not occur and the number of ventricular premature beats (VPBs) were 0.4 ± 0.8/h at baseline and 3.8 ± 10/h at follow-up (p = n.s.). In a subgroup of 4 subjects with >100 VPBs per hour at follow-up left ventricular mass was increased compared to the others (p < 0.03). Furthermore, regression of sino-atrial (SA) and atrioventricular (AV) blocks was shown. There were no cases of atrial flutter or fibrillation. There was a slight reduction in mean left ventricular wall thickness (9.9 ± 1.2 vs. 9.5 ± 1.4 mm, p < 0.05) and a highly significant reduction of relative wall thickness (0.38 vs. 0.35, p < 0.001). Left ventricular end-diastolic volume (68 ± 6 vs. 70 ± 7 ml ml/m2, p = n.s.) and left ventricular mass (109 ± 19 vs. 107 ± 19 g/m2, p = n.s.) were unchanged when corrected for body surface area and ejection fraction (EF) increased (60 ± 7 vs. 67 ± 6%, p < 0.01). Parameters of left ventricular diastolic function were normal both at baseline and follow-up. Conclusions: There was no evidence of deleterious cardiac effects of previous top-level endurance athletic activity at 15 years’ follow-up.