Open Access Gateway
Med Princ Pract 2008;17:435–439

Prevalence of Waterpipe Smoking among Rural Pregnant Women in Southern Iran

Mirahmadizadeh A.a · Nakhaee N.b
aDepartment of Epidemiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, bKerman Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
email Corresponding Author

 goto top of outline Key Words

  • Pregnancy
  • Waterpipe
  • Low birth weight
  • Risk factor
  • Iran

 goto top of outline Abstract

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of waterpipe smoking among rural pregnant women in Southern Iran and to identify the impact of maternal waterpipe smoking on baby’s birth weight. Subjects and Methods: A population-based survey was conducted in rural areas of Southern Iran in 2004 using existing health records and interviewing all mothers during the 10 days after delivery. Maternal exclusion criteria included cigarette smoking during pregnancy, a history or occurrence of epilepsy, diabetes and hypertension (gestational and/or essential) during pregnancy, factors that have been proved to have detrimental effects on birth weight. Results: Of the 2,808 mothers interviewed, 224 (8%) were waterpipe smokers of which 90 (3.2%) and 134 (4.8%) were occasional (smoking less than once per day) and daily (at least once per day) smokers, respectively. Six hundred and seventy-four (24%) were passively exposed to waterpipe smoke during pregnancy and 322 (11.5%) were exposed to second-hand cigarette smoke. Mothers who started smoking during the first trimester had lower birth weight babies (3,215 ± 612 g) compared to those who started smoking during the second or third trimesters (3,447 ± 550 g, p = 0.04). Conclusion: Waterpipe smoking during pregnancy is prevalent in Southern Iran and appears to be a risk factor for low birth weight babies.

Copyright © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

 goto top of outline References
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 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Nouzar Nakhaee
Kerman Neuroscience Research Center
Kerman University of Medical Sciences
Kerman (Iran)
Tel. +98 341 322 4613, Fax +98 341 211 1010, E-Mail

 goto top of outline Article Information

Received: September 26, 2007
Revised: January 7, 2008
Published online: October 03, 2008
Number of Print Pages : 5
Number of Figures : 0, Number of Tables : 2, Number of References : 24

 goto top of outline Publication Details

Medical Principles and Practice (International Journal of the Kuwait University Health Sciences Centre)

Vol. 17, No. 6, Year 2008 (Cover Date: October 2008)

Journal Editor: Owunwanne A. (Kuwait)
ISSN: 1011–7571 (Print), eISSN: 1423–0151 (Online)

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