Objective: The objective of the present study was to find the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity (ADH) symptoms in a sample of primary schoolchildren in Qatar and investigate the behaviour of the children with and without ADH symptoms in a highly consanguineous community. Subjects and Methods: A total of 2,500 primary school students, aged 6–12 years, were randomly selected from the government primary schools, and 1,869 students (947 boys and 922 girls) gave consent to participate in this study. An Arabic questionnaire was used to collect the sociodemographic variables and a standardized Arabic version of the Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale for ADH symptoms. Results: Of the 947 boys, 158 (16.7%; 95% confidence interval, CI, 14.4–19.2) and of the 922 girls, 50 (5.4%; 95% CI 4.1–7.1) scored above the cut-off (≧15) for ADH symptoms, thus giving an overall prevalence of 11.1% (95% CI 9.7–12.6). The children who had higher scores for ADH symptoms were in the age group of 6–9 years. Children who had higher scores for ADH symptoms had a poorer school performance than those with lower scores (p = 0.002). Two hundred (96.2%) children with ADH were disobedient, 126 (60.6%) noisy and hyperactive, 76 (36.5%) very cranky, 78 (37.5%) troublesome and 79 (37.9%) nervous. The logistic regression identified socio-economic condition, number of children, school performance and poor relationship between parents as the main contributors to ADH. Although the univariate analysis showed a significant relationship (p = 0.010) between ADH symptoms and consanguineous parents, logistic regression did not support this association (p = 0.075). This suggests that consanguinity has no impact on ADH children. Conclusion: The study revealed that ADH is a common problem among schoolchildren. The children with higher scores for ADH symptoms had a poorer school performance than those with lower scores. A significant difference exists between the behaviour of children with and without ADH.
© 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
- Hyperactivity, prevalence
- Barbaresi WJ, Katusic SK, Colligan RC, Pankratz VS, Weaver AL, Weber KJ, Mrazek DA, Jacobsen SJ: How common is attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Incidence in a population-based birth cohort in Rochester, Minnesota. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2002;156:217–224.
- Purper OD, Wohl M, Michel G, Moureh MC, Gorwood P: Symptom variations in ADHD: importance of context, development and comorbidity. Encéphale 2004;30:533–539.
- Barkley RA: Child behaviour rating scales and checklists; in Rutter M, Tuma AH, Lann IS (eds): Assessment and Diagnosis in Child Psychopathology. New York, Guilford Press, 1988, pp 113–155.
- Sayal K, Hornsey H, Warren S, Macdiarmid F, Taylor E: Identification of children at risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, a school based intervention. Soc Psychiatry Epidemiol 2006;41:806–813.
- Bener A, Alali KA: Consanguineous marriages in the new developed country: Qatari population. J Biosoc Sci 2006;38:239–246.
- Faraone SV, Biederman J, Spencer T, Wilens T, Seidman LJ, Mick E, Doyle AE: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults: an overview. Biol Psychiatry 2000;48:9–20.
- Weiss G, Hechitman L: Hyperactive Children Grown Up: ADHD in Children, Adolescents and Adults. New York, Guilford Press, 1993.
- Bener A, Al-Qahtani R, Abdelaal I: The prevalence of ADHD among primary schoolchildren in an Arabian Society. J Atten Disord 2006;10:77–82.
- Maniadaki K, Sonuga-Barke E, Kakouros E, Karaba R: Parental beliefs about the nature of ADHD behaviours and their relationship to referral intentions in preschool children. Child Care Health Dev 2007;33:188–195.
- Taylor E, Sandberg S, Thorley G, Giles S: The Epidemiology of Childhood Hyperactivity. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1991, pp 4–143.
- Johnson BD, Franklin LC, Hall K, Prieto LR: Parent training through play: parent child interaction therapy with a hyperactive child. Family J 2000;8:180–186.
- Luk SL, Leung PW: Conners’ Teacher’s Rating Scale – a validity study in Hong Kong. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1989;30:785–793.
- Bu-Haroon A, Eapen V, Bener A: The prevalence of hyperactivity symptoms in the United Arab Emirates. Nordic J Psychiatry 1999;53:439–442.
- Goyette CH, Conners CK, Ulrich RF: Normative data on revised Conners parent and teacher rating scales. J Abnorm Child Psychol 1978;6:221–236.
- Miller LS, Koplewicz HS, Idein RG: Teacher ratings of hyperactivity, inattention and conduct problems in preschoolers. J Abnorm Child Psychol 1997;25:113–119.
- Rowland AS, Umbach DM, Catoe KE, Stallone L, Long S, Rabiner D, Naftel AJ, Panke D, Faulk R, Sandler DP: Studying the epidemiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: screening method and pilot results. Can J Psychiatry 2001;46:931–940.
- Barkley RA: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment, ed 2. New York, Guilford Press, 1998.
- Faraone SV, Biederman J, Monuteaux MC: A psychometric measure of learning disability predicts educational failure 4 years later in boys with ADHD. J Atten Dis 2001;4:220–230.
- Sharma V, Newcorn J, Schulz K, Halperin J: Childhood disorders: attention deficit and disruptive behaviour disorders; in Tasman A, Kay J, Lieberman J (eds): Psychiatry, ed 2. Chichester, John Wiley & Sons, 2003, pp 779–798.
- Child Development Institute Research Center: About attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (2005). http://www.childdevelopmentinfo.com/disorders/adhd.shtml (accessed May 21, 2007).
- White JD: Personality, temperament and ADHD: a review of the literature. Pers Individ Diff 1999;27:589–598.
- Sayal K, Goodman R, Ford T: Barriers to the identification of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2006;47:744–750.
- Stein MT, Diller L, Resnikoff R: ADHD, divorce, and parental disagreement about the diagnosis and treatment. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2001;22:61–65.
- Eapen V, Al-Sabosy M, Saeed M, Sabri S: Child psychiatric disorders in a primary care Arab population. Int J Psychiatry Med 2004;34:51–60.
- Finzi-Dottan R, Manor I, Tyano S: ADHD, temperament, and parental style as predictors of the child’s attachment patterns. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2006;37:103–114.
Prof. Abdulbari Bener, Advisor to WHO
Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Hamad General Hospital
Hamad Medical Corporation and Weill Cornell Medical College Qatar
PO Box 3050, Doha (State of Qatar)
Tel. +974 439 3765, Fax +974 439 3769, E-Mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: October 7, 2007
Revised: November 29, 2007
Published online: October 03, 2008
Number of Print Pages : 7
Number of Figures : 0, Number of Tables : 4, Number of References : 25
Medical Principles and Practice (International Journal of the Kuwait University Health Sciences Centre)
Vol. 17, No. 6, Year 2008 (Cover Date: October 2008)
Journal Editor: Owunwanne A. (Kuwait)
ISSN: 1011–7571 (Print), eISSN: 1423–0151 (Online)
For additional information: http://www.karger.com/MPP
Open Access License / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) (www.karger.com/OA-license
), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.