Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 85, No. 3-4, 1999
Issue release date: 1999
Cytogenet Cell Genet 85:205–211 (1999)

Construction of a swine BAC library: application to the characterization and mapping of porcine type C endoviral elements

Rogel-Gaillard C. · Bourgeaux N. · Billault A. · Vaiman M. · Chardon P.
aLaboratoire de Radiopathologie et d’Etude du Génome, Département de Génétique Animale, Jouy-en-Josas; bFondation Jean Dausset, Centre d’Etude du Polymorphisme Humain, Paris; and cLaboratoire de Radiopathologie et d’Etude du Génome, DSV, DRR, LRA, Jouy-en-Josas (France)

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in



A porcine bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed using the pBeloBAC11 vector. It comprised 107,520 clones with an average insert size of 135 kb, representing an almost fivefold coverage of the swine haploid genome. Screening of the library allowed recovery of one to eight clones for 142 unique markers located all over the genome, while it failed for only one marker. About 4% chimeric clones were found. The library was also screened for the protease gene of type C porcine endoviral sequences (PERVs), and 62 clones were recovered, all but two of which contained one protease gene. We found 20 protease sequences (PERV-1 to PERV-20) which, despite differing by point mutations, were all coding sequences. The most frequent sequence, PERV-2, was 100% similar to a protease sequence expressed in the porcine PK-15 cell line. Most of the clones harbored envelope genes. Thirty-three BAC clones were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to 22 distinct locations on 14 chromosomes, including the X and Y chromosomes. These overall results indicate that there is generally one PERV copy per integration site. Although PERV sequences were not tandemly arranged, clusters of integration sites were observed at positions 3p1.5 and 7p1.1. Southern blot experiments revealed 20–30 PERV copies in the Large White pig genome studied here, and variations in PERV content among pigs of different breeds were observed. In conclusion, this BAC collection represents a significant contribution to the swine large genomic DNA cloned insert resources and provides the first detailed map of PERV sequences in the swine genome. This work is the first step toward identification of potential active sites of PERV elements.

Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.


  1. Abderrahim H, Sambucy JL, Iris F, Ougen P, Billault A, Chumakov IM, Dausset J, Cohen D, Le Paslier D: Cloning the human major histocompatibility complex in YACs. Genomics 23:520–527 (1994).
  2. Akiyoshi DE, Denaro M, Zhu H, Greenstein JL, Banerjee P, Fishman JA: Identification of a full-length cDNA for an endogenous retrovirus of miniature swine. J Virol 72:4503–4507 (1998).
  3. Alexander LJ, Smith TPL, Beattie CW, Broom MF: Construction and characterization of a large insert porcine YAC library. Mammal Genome 8:50–51 (1997).
  4. Andersson G, Svensson AC, Setterblad N, Rask L: Retroelements in the human MHC class II region. Trends Genet 14:109–114 (1998).

    External Resources

  5. Bach FH, Fishman JA, Daniels N, Proimos J, Anderson B, Carpenter CB, Forrow L, Robson SC, Fineberg HV: Uncertainty in xenotransplantation: individual benefit versus collective risk. Nature Med 4:141–144 (1998).

    External Resources

  6. Frankel WN, Stoye JP, Taylor BA, Coffin JM: A linkage map of endogenous murine leukemia proviruses. Genetics 124:221–236 (1990).

    External Resources

  7. Gustavsson I: Standard karyotype of the domestic pig. Hereditas 109:151–157 (1988).
  8. Heneine W, Tibell A, Switzer WM, Sandstrom P, Vazquez Rosales G, Mathews A, Korsgren O, Chapman LE, Folks TM, Groth CG: No evidence of infection with porcine endogenous retrovirus in recipients of porcine islet-cell xenografts. Lancet 352:695–699 (1998).
  9. Higgins DG, Sharp PM: Fast and sensitive multiple sequence alignments on microcomputer. CABIOS 5:151–153 (1989).
  10. Kulski JK, Gaudieri S, Bellgard M, Balmer L, Giles K, Inoko H, Dawkins RL: The evolution of MHC diversity by segmental duplication and transposition of retroelements. J molec Evol 45:599–609 (1997).

    External Resources

  11. Le Tissier P, Stoye JP, Takeuchi Y, Patience C, Weiss RA: Two sets of human-tropic pig retrovirus. Nature 389:681–682 (1997).
  12. Leeb T, Rettenberger G, Hameister H, Brem G, Brenig B: Construction of a porcine YAC library and mapping of the cardiac muscle ryanodine receptor gene to chromosome 14q22-q23. Mammal Genome 6:37–41 (1995).

    External Resources

  13. Martin U, Kiessig V, Blusch JH, Haverich A, von der Helm K, Herden T, Steinhoff G: Expression of pig endogenous retrovirus by primary porcine endothelial cells and infection of human cells. Lancet 352:692–694 (1998a).
  14. Martin U, Steinhoff G, Kiessig V, Chikobava M, Anssar M, Morschheuser T, Lapin B, Haverich A: Porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) was not transmitted from transplanted porcine endothelial cells to baboons in vivo. Transplant Int 11:247–251 (1998b).
  15. Meruelo D, Kornreich R, Rossomando A, Pampeno C, Mellor AL, Weiss EH, Flavell RA, Pellicer A: Murine leukemia virus sequences are encoded in the murine major histocompatibility complex. Proc natl Acad Sci, USA 81:1804–1808 (1984).
  16. Patience C, Patton GS, Takeuchi Y, Weiss RA, McClure MO, Rydberg L, Breimer ME: No evidence of pig DNA or retroviral infection in patients with short-term extracorporeal connection to pig kidneys. Lancet 352:699–701 (1998).
  17. Patience C, Takeuchi Y, Weiss RA: Infection of human cells by an endogenous retrovirus of pigs. Nature Med 3:282–286 (1997).
  18. Rogel-Gaillard C, Bourgeaux N, Save JC, Renard C, Coullin P, Pinton P, Yerle M, Vaiman M, Chardon P: Construction of a swine YAC library allowing an efficient recovery of unique and centromeric repeated sequences. Mammal Genome 8:186–192 (1997).
  19. Rossomando A, Meruelo D: Viral sequences are associated with many histocompatibility genes. Immunogenetics 23:233–245 (1986).
  20. Schibler L, Vaiman D, Oustry A, Guinec N, Dangy-Caye AL, Billault A, Cribiu EP: Construction and extensive characterization of a goat bacterial artificial chromosome library with threefold genome coverage. Mammal Genome 9:119–124 (1998).
  21. Shizuya H, Birren B, Kim UJ, Mancino V, Slepak T, Tachiiri Y, Simon M: Cloning and stable maintenance of 300-kilobase-pair fragments of human DNA in Escherichia coli using F-factor-based vector. Proc natl Acad Sci, USA 89:8794–8797 (1992).

    External Resources

  22. Smith TPL, Rohrer GA, Alexander LJ, Troyer DL, Kirby-Dobbels KR, Janzen MA, Cornwell DL, Louis CF, Schook LB, Beattie CW: Directed integration of the physical and genetic maps of swine chromosome 7 reveals that the SLA spans the centromere. Genome Res 5:259–271 (1995).
  23. Stoye J: Proviruses pose potential problems. Nature 386:126–127 (1997).

    External Resources

  24. Tassabehji M, Strachan T, Anderson M, Campbell RD, Collier S, Lako M: Identification of a novel family of endogenous retroviruses and characterization of one member, HERV-K(C4), located in the complement C4 gene cluster. Nucl Acids Res 22:5211–5217 (1994).

    External Resources

  25. Tereba A: Asymmetric chromosomal distribution of endogenous retrovirus loci in chicken and mice. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 107:29–50 (1983).

    External Resources

  26. Tristem M, Kabat P, Lieberman L, Linde S, Karpqs A, Hill F: Characterization of a novel murine leukemia virus-related subgroup within mammals. J Virol 70:8241–8246 (1996).
  27. Velten F, Rogel-Gaillard C, Renard C, Pontarotti P, Tazi-Ahnini R, Vaiman M, Chardon P: A first map of the porcine major histocompatibility complex class I region. Tissue Antigens 51:183–194 (1998).

    External Resources

  28. Weiss RA: Transgenic pigs and virus adaptation. Nature 391:327–328 (1998).
  29. Wilson CA, Wong S, Muller J, Davidson CE, Rose TM, Burd P: Type C retrovirus released from porcine primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells infect human cells. J Virol 72:3082–3087 (1998).

Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50