Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 85, No. 3-4, 1999
Issue release date: 1999
Cytogenet Cell Genet 85:291–296 (1999)

Coding region intron/exon organization, alternative splicing, and X-chromosome inactivation of the KRAB/FPB-domain-containing human zinc finger gene ZNF41

Rosati M. · Franzé A. · Matarazzo M.R. · Grimaldi G.
International Institute of Genetics and Biophysics, CNR, Naples (Italy)

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in



ZNF41 belongs to a cluster of human zinc finger genes residing within a gene-rich region at Xp11.23. ZNF41 encodes a KRAB/FPB (Krüppel-associated/finger preceding box) domain, a potent transcription repression motif present in hundreds of vertebrate zinc finger protein genes, composed of two protein modules, A and B. Three introns, placed at identical positions in paralogous genes, interrupt four exons encoding the ZNF41 N-terminal amino acids, the KRAB/FPB-A and KRAB/FPB-B modules, and the remaining coding region adjoined to the C-terminal zinc finger domain. Since the KRAB/FPB-A and KRAB/FPB-B modules are encoded by dedicated exons in ZNF41 and paralogous genes, exon skipping may lead to differential usage of these modules in alternative gene products. RT-PCR analysis of ZNF41 mRNAs showed that, while skipping of the KRAB/FPB-A and/or KRAB/FPB-B exons was not detected, the use of alternative donor/acceptor sites upstream of the KRAB/FPB-A exon generates multiple ZNF41 transcripts potentially encoding polypeptides differing in the N-terminal region and expressed in different tissues. The expression pattern in cell hybrids containing either active or inactive X chromosomes indicates that ZNF41, which resides within a region of the X chromosome that includes genes that are both subject to and escape X-inactivation, is susceptible to X-chromosome inactivation.

Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.


  1. Aitken A: Identification of protein consensus sequences, in Wiseman A (ed): Ellis Horwood Series in Biochemistry and Biotechnology (Ellis Horwood, Chichester 1990).
  2. Bellefroid EJ, Marine JC, Ried T, Lecocq PJ, Riviere M, Amemiya C, Poncelet DA, Coulie PG, de Jong P, Szpirer C, Ward DC, Martial JA: Clustered organization of homologous KRAB zinc-finger genes with enhanced expression in human T lymphoid cells. EMBO J 12:1363–1374 (1993).
  3. Bellefroid EJ, Poncelet DA, Lecocq PJ, Relevant O, Martial JA: The evolutionary conserved Kruppel-associated box domain defines a subfamily of eukaryotic multifingered proteins. Proc natl Acad Sci, USA 88:3608–3612 (1991).
  4. Carrel L, Clemson CM, Dunn JM, Miller AP, Hunt PA, Lawrence JB, Willard HF: X inactivation analysis and DNA methylation studies of the ubiquitin activating enzyme E1 and PCTAIRE-1 genes in human and mouse. Hum molec Genet 5:391–401 (1996).

    External Resources

  5. Colemen MP, Ambrose HJ, Carrel L, Nemeth AH, Willard HF, Davies KE: A novel gene, DXS8237E, lies within 20 kb upstream of UBE1 in Xp11.23 and has a different X inactivation status. Genomics 31:135–138 (1996).
  6. Costantinou Deltas C, Bashiardes E, Patsalis PC, Hadjimarcou M, Kroisel PM, Ioannou PA, Roses AD, Lee JE: Complete coding sequence exon/intron arrangement and chromosome location of ZNF45, a KRAB-domain-containing gene. Cytogenet Cell Genet 75:230–233 (1996).
  7. Derry JMJ, Jess U, Francke U: Cloning and characterization of a novel zinc finger gene in Xp11.2. Genomics 30:361–365 (1995).
  8. D’Esposito M, Ciccodicola A, Gianfrancesco F, Esposito T, Flagiello L, Mazzarella R, Schlessinger D, D’Urso M: A synaptobrevin like gene in Xq28 pseudoautosomal region undergoes X inactivation. Nature Genet 13:227–229 (1995).
  9. Disteche CM: Escape from X inactivation in human and mouse. Trends Genet 11:17–22 (1995).

    External Resources

  10. Franzé A, Archidiacono N, Rocchi M, Marino M, Grimaldi G: Isolation and expression analysis of a human zinc finger gene (ZNF41) located on the short arm of the X chromosome. Genomics 9:728–736 (1991).
  11. Hanna-Rose W, Hansen U: Active repression mechanisms of eukaryotic transcription repressors. Trends Genet 12:229–234 (1996).

    External Resources

  12. Klug A, Schwabe JWR: Protein motifs. V. Zinc fingers. FASEB J 9:597–604 (1995).
  13. Knight JC, Grimaldi G, Thiesen H-J, Bech-Hansen NT, Fletcher CDM, Coleman MP: Clustered organization of Krüppel zinc finger genes at Xp11.23 flanking a translocation breakpoint at OATL1: a physical map with locus assignments for ZNF21, ZNF41, ZNF81, and ELK1 Genomics 21:180–187 (1994).
  14. Knöchel W, Pöting A, Köster M, El-Baradi T, Nietfeld W, Bouwmeester T, Pieler T: Evolutionary conserved modules associated with zinc fingers in Xenopus laevis. Proc natl Acad Sci, USA 86:6097–6100 (1989).
  15. Kozak M: Determinants of translational fidelity and efficiency in vertebrate mRNAs. Biochimie 76:815–821 (1994).
  16. Margolin JF, Friedman JR, Meyer WK-H, Vissing H, Thiesen H-J, Rauscher III FJ: Kruppel-associated boxes are potent transcriptional repression domains. Proc natl Acad Sci, USA 91:4509–4513 (1994).
  17. Marino M, Archidiacono N, Franzé A, Rosati M, Rocchi M, Ballabio A, Grimaldi G: A novel X-linked member of the human zinc finger protein gene family. Mammal Genome 4:252–257 (1993).

    External Resources

  18. Mazarakis N, Michalovich D, Karis A, Grosveld F, Galjart N: Zfp-37 is a member of the KRAB zinc finger gene family and is expressed in neurons of the developing and adult CNS. Genomics 33:247–257 (1996).

    External Resources

  19. Miller AP, Willard HF: Chromosomal basis of X chromosome inactivation: identification of a multigene domain in Xp11.21→p11.22 that escapes X inactivation. Proc natl Acad Sci, USA 95:8709–8714 (1998).
  20. Nelson DL, Ballabio A, Cremers F, Monaco AP, Schlessinger D: Report of the sixth international workshop on X chromosme mapping 1995. Cytogenet Cell Genet 71:308–362 (1995).
  21. Numoto MO, Niwa O, Kaplan KK, Wong K, Kamiya K, Calame K: Transcriptional repressor ZF5 identifies a new conserved domain in zinc finger proteins. Nucl Acids Res 21:3767–3775 (1993).

    External Resources

  22. Odeberg J, Rosok O, Gudmundsson GH, Ahmadian A, Roshani L, Williams C, Larsson C, Ponten F, Uhlen M, Asheim HC, Lundeberg J: Cloning and characterization of ZNF189, a novel human Kruppel-like zinc finger gene localized to chromosome 9q22→q31. Genomics 50:213–21 (1998).

    External Resources

  23. Pengue G, Calabrò V, Cannada Bartoli P, Pagliuca A, Lania L: Repression of transcriptional activity at a distance by the evolutionary conserved KRAB domain present in a subfamily of zinc finger proteins. Nucl Acids Res 22:2908–2914 (1994).
  24. Pieler T, Bellefroid E: Perspectives on zinc finger protein function and evolution–an update. Mol Biol Rep 20:1–8 (1994).
  25. Rosati M, Marino M, Franzé A, Tramontano A, Grimaldi G: Members of the zinc finger protein gene family sharing a conserved N-terminal module. Nucl Acids Res 19:5661–5667 (1991).

    External Resources

  26. Simeone A, Acampora D, Arcioni L, Andrews PW, Boncinelli E, Mavilio F: Sequential activation of HOX2 homeobox genes by retinoic acid in human embryonal carcinoma cells. Nature 346:763–766 (1990).
  27. Witzgall R, O’Leary E, Leaf A, Onaldi D, Bonventre JV: The Kruppel associated box-A (KRAB-A) domain of zinc finger proteins mediates transcriptional repression. Proc natl Acad Sci, USA 91:4514–4518 (1994a).
  28. Witzgall R, Volk R, Yeung RS, Bonventre JV: Genomic structure and chromosomal location of the rat gene encoding the zinc finger transcription factor kid-1. Genomics 20:203–209 (1994b).
  29. Villa A, Zucchi I, Pilia G, Strina D, Susani L, Patrosso C, Frattini A, Lucchini F, Repetto M, Sacco MG, Zoppé M, Vezzoni P: ZNF75: isolation of a cDNA clone of the KRAB zinc finger gene subfamily mapped in YACs 1 Mb telomeric to HPRT. Genomics 18:223–229 (1993).

Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50