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Vol. 42, No. 6, 2008
Issue release date: November 2008
Section title: Short Communication
Free Access
Caries Res 2008;42:444–448
(DOI:10.1159/000159608)

Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis Colonization Correlated with Caries Experience in Children

Ge Y.a · Caufield P.W.b · Fisch G.S.c · Li Y.a
Departments of aBasic Science and Craniofacial Biology, bCariology and Comprehensive Care and cEpidemiology and Health Promotion, New York University College of Dentistry, New York, N.Y., USA
email Corresponding Author

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the colonization of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in the oral cavity and the association with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC). Saliva and plaque samples were collected from 14 S-ECC children and 8 caries-free (CF) children. All S-ECC children were S. mutans positive; 100% of CF children and 93% of S-ECC children were S. sanguinis positive. The children’s caries severity was positively correlated with levels of S. mutans (p < 0.001), total oral streptococci (p < 0.01), total cultivable oral bacteria (p < 0.05), and children’s age (p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that the interaction of S. sanguinis with S. mutans was a significant factor associated with the caries status in children, suggesting that the relative levels of these two microorganisms in the oral cavity play an important role in caries development.

© 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel


  

Key Words

  • Early childhood caries
  • Streptococcus mutans
  • Streptococcus sanguinis

References

  1. Alaki SM, Loesche WJ, da Fonesca MA, Feigal RJ, Welch K: Preventing the transfer of Streptococcus mutans from primary molars to permanent first molars using chlorhexidine. Pediatr Dent 2002;24:103–108.

    External Resources

  2. Babaahmady KG, Challacombe SJ, Marsh PD, Newman HN: Ecological study of Streptococcus mutans,Streptococcus sobrinus and Lactobacillus spp at sub-sites from approximal dental plaque from children. Caries Res 1998;32:51–58.
  3. Becker MR, Paster BJ, Leys EJ, Moeschberger ML, Kenyon SG, Galvin JL, Boches SK, Dewhirst FE, Griffen AL: Molecular analysis of bacterial species associated with childhood caries. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40:1001–1009.
  4. Beighton D, Brailsford S, Samaranayake LP, Brown JP, Ping FX, Grant-Mills D, Harris R, Lo EC, Naidoo S, Ramos-Gomez F, Soo TC, Burnside G, Pine CM: A multi-country comparison of caries-associated microflora in demographically diverse children. Community Dent Health 2004;21:96–101.

    External Resources

  5. Berkowitz R: Etiology of nursing caries: a microbiologic perspective. J Public Health Dent 1996;56:51–54.
  6. Burt BA, Loesche WJ, Eklund SA: Stability of selected plaque species and their relationship to caries in a child population over 2 years. Caries Res 1985;19:193–200.
  7. Caufield PW, Cutter GR, Dasanayake AP: Initial acquisition of mutans streptococci by infants: evidence for a discrete window of infectivity. J Dent Res 1993;72:37–45.
  8. Caufield PW, Dasanayake AP, Li Y, Pan Y, Hsu J, Hardin JM: Natural history of Streptococcus sanguinis in the oral cavity of infants: evidence for a discrete window of infectivity. Infect Immun 2000;68:4018–4023.
  9. Corby PM, Lyons-Weiler J, Bretz WA, Hart TC, Aas JA, Boumenna T, Goss J, Corby AL, Junior HM, Weyant RJ, Paster BJ: Microbial risk indicators of early childhood caries. J Clin Microbiol 2005;43:5753–5759.
  10. Dasanayake AP, Caufield PW, Cutter GR, Roseman JM, Kohler B: Differences in the detection and enumeration of mutans streptococci due to differences in methods. Arch Oral Biol 1995;40:345–351.
  11. De Stoppelaar JD, Van Houte J, Backer Dirks O: The relationship between extracellular polysaccharide-producing streptococci and smooth surface caries in 13-year-old children. Caries Res 1969;3:190–199.
  12. Hamada S, Slade HD: Biology, immunology, and cariogenicity of streptococcus mutans. Microbiol Rev 1980;44:331–384.
  13. Kohler B, Andreen I, Jonsson B: The earlier the colonization by mutans streptococci, the higher the caries prevalence at 4 years of age. Oral Microbiol Immunol 1988;3:14–17.
  14. Li Y, Caufield P, Emanuelsson I, Thornqvist E: Differentiation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus via genotypic and phenotypic profiles from three different populations. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2001;16:16–23.
  15. Li Y, Caufield PW: The fidelity of initial acquisition of mutans streptococci by infants from their mothers. J Dent Res 1995;74:681–685.
  16. Li Y, Caufield PW, Dasanayake AP, Wiener HW, Vermund SH: Mode of delivery and other maternal factors influence the acquisition of Streptococcus mutans in infants. J Dent Res 2005;84:806–811.
  17. Li Y, Ge Y, Saxena D, Caufield PW: Genetic profiling of the oral microbiota associated with severe early-childhood caries. J Clin Microbiol 2007;45:81–87.
  18. Li Y, Navia JM, Caufield PW: Colonization by mutans streptococci in the mouths of 3- and 4-year-old Chinese children with or without enamel hypoplasia. Arch Oral Biol 1994;39:1057–1062.
  19. Li Y, Wang W, Caufield PW: The fidelity of mutans streptococci transmission and caries status correlate with breast-feeding experience among chinese families. Caries Res 2000;34:123–132.
  20. Lindquist B, Emilson CG: Colonization of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus genotypes and caries development in children to mothers harboring both species. Caries Res 2004;38:95–103.
  21. Loesche WJ: Role of Streptococcus mutans in human dental decay. Microbiol Rev 1986;50:353–380.
  22. Loesche WJ, Eklund S, Earnest R, Burt B: Longitudinal investigation of bacteriology of human fissure decay: epidemiological studies in molars shortly after eruption. Infect Immun 1984;46:765–772.
  23. Loesche WJ, Walenga A, Loos P: Recovery of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis from a dental explorer after clinical examination of single human teeth. Arch Oral Biol 1973;18:571–575.
  24. Marchant S, Brailsford SR, Twomey AC, Roberts GJ, Beighton D: The predominant microflora of nursing caries lesions. Caries Res 2001;35:397–406.
  25. Matee MI, Mikx FH, Maselle SY, Van Palenstein Helderman WH: Mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in breast-fed children with rampant caries. Caries Res 1992;26:183–187.
  26. Okada M, Soda Y, Hayashi F, Doi T, Suzuki J, Miura K, Kozai K: PCR detection of Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus in dental plaque samples from Japanese pre-school children. J Med Microbiol 2002;51:443–447.
  27. Okada M, Soda Y, Hayashi F, Doi T, Suzuki J, Miura K, Kozai K: Longitudinal study of dental caries incidence associated with Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in pre-school children. J Med Microbiol 2005;54:661–665.
  28. Pan YP, Li Y, Caufield PW: Phenotypic and genotypic diversity of Streptococcus sanguis in infants. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2001;16:235–242.
  29. Seki M, Yamashita Y, Shibata Y, Torigoe H, Tsuda H, Maeno M: Effect of mixed mutans streptococci colonization on caries development. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2006;21:47–52.
  30. Thurnheer T, Gmur R, Giertsen E, Guggenheim B: Automated fluorescent in situ hybridization for the specific detection and quantification of oral streptococci in dental plaque. J Microbiol Methods 2001;44:39–47.

  

Author Contacts

Dr. Yihong Li
New York University College of Dentistry
345 E. 24th Street
New York, NY 10010-4086 (USA)
Tel. +1 212 998 9607, Fax +1 212 995 4087, E-Mail yihong.li@nyu.edu

  

Article Information

Received: November 20, 2007
Accepted after revision: August 6, 2008
Published online: October 3, 2008
Number of Print Pages : 5
Number of Figures : 0, Number of Tables : 3, Number of References : 30

  

Publication Details

Caries Research

Vol. 42, No. 6, Year 2008 (Cover Date: November 2008)

Journal Editor: Shellis R.P. (Bristol)
ISSN: 0008–6568 (Print), eISSN: 1421–976X (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/CRE


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the colonization of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in the oral cavity and the association with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC). Saliva and plaque samples were collected from 14 S-ECC children and 8 caries-free (CF) children. All S-ECC children were S. mutans positive; 100% of CF children and 93% of S-ECC children were S. sanguinis positive. The children’s caries severity was positively correlated with levels of S. mutans (p < 0.001), total oral streptococci (p < 0.01), total cultivable oral bacteria (p < 0.05), and children’s age (p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that the interaction of S. sanguinis with S. mutans was a significant factor associated with the caries status in children, suggesting that the relative levels of these two microorganisms in the oral cavity play an important role in caries development.

© 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel


  

Author Contacts

Dr. Yihong Li
New York University College of Dentistry
345 E. 24th Street
New York, NY 10010-4086 (USA)
Tel. +1 212 998 9607, Fax +1 212 995 4087, E-Mail yihong.li@nyu.edu

  

Article Information

Received: November 20, 2007
Accepted after revision: August 6, 2008
Published online: October 3, 2008
Number of Print Pages : 5
Number of Figures : 0, Number of Tables : 3, Number of References : 30

  

Publication Details

Caries Research

Vol. 42, No. 6, Year 2008 (Cover Date: November 2008)

Journal Editor: Shellis R.P. (Bristol)
ISSN: 0008–6568 (Print), eISSN: 1421–976X (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/CRE


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Short Communication

Received: 11/20/2007
Accepted: 8/6/2008
Published online: 10/3/2008
Issue release date: November 2008

Number of Print Pages: 5
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 3

ISSN: 0008-6568 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-976X (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/CRE


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Alaki SM, Loesche WJ, da Fonesca MA, Feigal RJ, Welch K: Preventing the transfer of Streptococcus mutans from primary molars to permanent first molars using chlorhexidine. Pediatr Dent 2002;24:103–108.

    External Resources

  2. Babaahmady KG, Challacombe SJ, Marsh PD, Newman HN: Ecological study of Streptococcus mutans,Streptococcus sobrinus and Lactobacillus spp at sub-sites from approximal dental plaque from children. Caries Res 1998;32:51–58.
  3. Becker MR, Paster BJ, Leys EJ, Moeschberger ML, Kenyon SG, Galvin JL, Boches SK, Dewhirst FE, Griffen AL: Molecular analysis of bacterial species associated with childhood caries. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40:1001–1009.
  4. Beighton D, Brailsford S, Samaranayake LP, Brown JP, Ping FX, Grant-Mills D, Harris R, Lo EC, Naidoo S, Ramos-Gomez F, Soo TC, Burnside G, Pine CM: A multi-country comparison of caries-associated microflora in demographically diverse children. Community Dent Health 2004;21:96–101.

    External Resources

  5. Berkowitz R: Etiology of nursing caries: a microbiologic perspective. J Public Health Dent 1996;56:51–54.
  6. Burt BA, Loesche WJ, Eklund SA: Stability of selected plaque species and their relationship to caries in a child population over 2 years. Caries Res 1985;19:193–200.
  7. Caufield PW, Cutter GR, Dasanayake AP: Initial acquisition of mutans streptococci by infants: evidence for a discrete window of infectivity. J Dent Res 1993;72:37–45.
  8. Caufield PW, Dasanayake AP, Li Y, Pan Y, Hsu J, Hardin JM: Natural history of Streptococcus sanguinis in the oral cavity of infants: evidence for a discrete window of infectivity. Infect Immun 2000;68:4018–4023.
  9. Corby PM, Lyons-Weiler J, Bretz WA, Hart TC, Aas JA, Boumenna T, Goss J, Corby AL, Junior HM, Weyant RJ, Paster BJ: Microbial risk indicators of early childhood caries. J Clin Microbiol 2005;43:5753–5759.
  10. Dasanayake AP, Caufield PW, Cutter GR, Roseman JM, Kohler B: Differences in the detection and enumeration of mutans streptococci due to differences in methods. Arch Oral Biol 1995;40:345–351.
  11. De Stoppelaar JD, Van Houte J, Backer Dirks O: The relationship between extracellular polysaccharide-producing streptococci and smooth surface caries in 13-year-old children. Caries Res 1969;3:190–199.
  12. Hamada S, Slade HD: Biology, immunology, and cariogenicity of streptococcus mutans. Microbiol Rev 1980;44:331–384.
  13. Kohler B, Andreen I, Jonsson B: The earlier the colonization by mutans streptococci, the higher the caries prevalence at 4 years of age. Oral Microbiol Immunol 1988;3:14–17.
  14. Li Y, Caufield P, Emanuelsson I, Thornqvist E: Differentiation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus via genotypic and phenotypic profiles from three different populations. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2001;16:16–23.
  15. Li Y, Caufield PW: The fidelity of initial acquisition of mutans streptococci by infants from their mothers. J Dent Res 1995;74:681–685.
  16. Li Y, Caufield PW, Dasanayake AP, Wiener HW, Vermund SH: Mode of delivery and other maternal factors influence the acquisition of Streptococcus mutans in infants. J Dent Res 2005;84:806–811.
  17. Li Y, Ge Y, Saxena D, Caufield PW: Genetic profiling of the oral microbiota associated with severe early-childhood caries. J Clin Microbiol 2007;45:81–87.
  18. Li Y, Navia JM, Caufield PW: Colonization by mutans streptococci in the mouths of 3- and 4-year-old Chinese children with or without enamel hypoplasia. Arch Oral Biol 1994;39:1057–1062.
  19. Li Y, Wang W, Caufield PW: The fidelity of mutans streptococci transmission and caries status correlate with breast-feeding experience among chinese families. Caries Res 2000;34:123–132.
  20. Lindquist B, Emilson CG: Colonization of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus genotypes and caries development in children to mothers harboring both species. Caries Res 2004;38:95–103.
  21. Loesche WJ: Role of Streptococcus mutans in human dental decay. Microbiol Rev 1986;50:353–380.
  22. Loesche WJ, Eklund S, Earnest R, Burt B: Longitudinal investigation of bacteriology of human fissure decay: epidemiological studies in molars shortly after eruption. Infect Immun 1984;46:765–772.
  23. Loesche WJ, Walenga A, Loos P: Recovery of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis from a dental explorer after clinical examination of single human teeth. Arch Oral Biol 1973;18:571–575.
  24. Marchant S, Brailsford SR, Twomey AC, Roberts GJ, Beighton D: The predominant microflora of nursing caries lesions. Caries Res 2001;35:397–406.
  25. Matee MI, Mikx FH, Maselle SY, Van Palenstein Helderman WH: Mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in breast-fed children with rampant caries. Caries Res 1992;26:183–187.
  26. Okada M, Soda Y, Hayashi F, Doi T, Suzuki J, Miura K, Kozai K: PCR detection of Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus in dental plaque samples from Japanese pre-school children. J Med Microbiol 2002;51:443–447.
  27. Okada M, Soda Y, Hayashi F, Doi T, Suzuki J, Miura K, Kozai K: Longitudinal study of dental caries incidence associated with Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in pre-school children. J Med Microbiol 2005;54:661–665.
  28. Pan YP, Li Y, Caufield PW: Phenotypic and genotypic diversity of Streptococcus sanguis in infants. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2001;16:235–242.
  29. Seki M, Yamashita Y, Shibata Y, Torigoe H, Tsuda H, Maeno M: Effect of mixed mutans streptococci colonization on caries development. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2006;21:47–52.
  30. Thurnheer T, Gmur R, Giertsen E, Guggenheim B: Automated fluorescent in situ hybridization for the specific detection and quantification of oral streptococci in dental plaque. J Microbiol Methods 2001;44:39–47.