Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.

Login with Facebook

Forgot Password? Reset your password

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login (Shibboleth)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 26, No. 5, 2008
Issue release date: November 2008
Section title: Original Research Article
Free Access
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2008;26:416–423
(DOI:10.1159/000164797)

Patient Dependence and Longitudinal Changes in Costs of Care in Alzheimer’s Disease

Zhu C.W.a, b · Leibman C.f · McLaughlin T.f · Zbrozek A.S.g · Scarmeas N.d, e · Albert M.h · Brandt J.h · Blacker D.i · Sano M.a, c · Stern Y.d, e
aGeriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center (GRECC) and Research Enhancement Awards Program (REAP), James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, N.Y., bBrookdale Department of Geriatrics and cDepartment of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, dCognitive Neuroscience Division, Taub Institute for Research in Alzheimer’s Disease and the Aging Brain, and eGertrude H. Sergievsky Center and the Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, N.Y., fElan Pharmaceuticals, Inc., San Francisco, Calif., gWyeth Pharmaceuticals, Collegeville, Pa., hDepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., and iDepartment of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass., USA
email Corresponding Author

Carolyn W. Zhu

Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center (GRECC)

James J. Peters VA Medical Center, 130 West Kingsbridge Road

Bronx, NY 10468 (USA)

Tel. +1 718 584 9000, ext. 3810, Fax +1 718 741 4211, E-Mail carolyn.zhu@mssm.edu


References

  1. Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion: Unrealized Prevention Opportunities: Reducing the Health and Economic Burden of Chronic Illness. November 2000.
  2. Taylor DH Jr, Schenkman M, Zhou J, Sloan FA: The relative effect of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias, disability, and comorbidities on cost of care for elderly persons. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2001;56:S285–S293.
  3. Small GW, McDonnell DD, Brooks RL, Papadopoulos G: The impact of symptom severity on the cost of Alzheimer’s disease. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002;50:321–327.
  4. Zhu CW, Scarmeas N, Torgan R, et al: Clinical characteristics and longitudinal changes of informal cost of Alzheimer’s disease in the community. J Am Geriatr Soc 2006;54:1596–1602.
  5. Zhu CW, Scarmeas N, Torgan R, et al: Longitudinal study of effects of patient characteristics on direct costs in Alzheimer disease. Neurology 2006;67:998–1005.
  6. Blessed G, Tomlinson BE, Roth M: The association between quantitative measures of dementia and of senile change in the cerebral grey matter of elderly subjects. Br J Psychiatry 1968;114:797–811.
  7. Stern Y, Albert SM, Sano M, et al: Assessing patient dependence in Alzheimer’s disease. J Gerontol 1994;49:M216–M222.
  8. Brickman AM, Riba A, Bell K, et al: Longitudinal assessment of patient dependence in Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2002;59:1304–1308.
  9. Holtzer R, Tang MX, Devanand DP, et al: Psychopathological features in Alzheimer’s disease: course and relationship with cognitive status. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003;51:953–960.
  10. Sarazin M, Stern Y, Berr C, et al: Neuropsychological predictors of dependency in patients with Alzheimer disease. Neurology 2005;64:1027–1031.
  11. Murman DL, Von Eye A, Sherwood PR, Liang J, Colenda CC: Evaluated need, costs of care, and payer perspective in degenerative dementia patients cared for in the United States. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2007;21:39–48.
  12. Zhu CW, Leibman C, McLaughlin T, et al: The effects of patient function and dependence on costs of care in Alzheimer’s disease. J Am Geriatr Soc, in press.
  13. Stern Y, Folstein M, Albert M, et al: Multicenter study of predictors of disease course in Alzheimer disease (the ‘predictors study’). 1. Study design, cohort description, and intersite comparisons. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 1993;7:3–21.
  14. Richards M, Folstein M, Albert M, et al: Multicenter study of predictors of disease course in Alzheimer disease (the ‘predictors study’). II. Neurological, psychiatric, and demographic influences on baseline measures of disease severity. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 1993;7:22–32.
  15. Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR: ‘Mini-mental state’. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 1975;12:189–198.
  16. Stern Y, Sano M, Paulson J, Mayeux R: Modified Mini-Mental State Examination: validity and reliability. Neurology 1987;37:179.
    External Resources
  17. Mirra SS: The CERAD neuropathology protocol and consensus recommendations for the postmortem diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: a commentary. Neurobiol Aging 1997;18:S91–S94.
  18. The National Institute on Aging, and Reagan Institute Working Group on Diagnostic Criteria for the Neuropathological Assessment of Alzheimer’s Disease: Consensus recommendations for the postmortem diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Aging 1997;18:S1–S2.
  19. Leon J, Cheng CK, Neumann PJ: Alzheimer’s disease care: costs and potential savings. Health Aff (Millwood) 1998;17:206–216.
  20. Menzin J, Lang K, Friedman M, Neumann P, Cummings JL: The economic cost of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias to the California Medicaid program (‘Medi-Cal’) in 1995. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 1999;7:300–308.
  21. Charlson ME, Pompei P, Ales KL, MacKenzie CR: A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation. J Chronic Dis 1987;40:373–383.
  22. Scarmeas N, Brandt J, Albert M, et al: Delusions and hallucinations are associated with worse outcome in Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2005;62:1601–1608.
  23. Rabe-Hesketh S, Skrondal A: Multilevel and Longitudinal Modeling Using Stata. College Station, Stata Press, 2005.
  24. Kennedy P: Estimation with correctly interpreted dummy variables in semilogarithmic equations. Am Econ Rev 1981;71:801.
    External Resources
  25. Stata Statistical Software: Release 9. College Station, StataCorp, 2005.
  26. Gold M, Siegel J, Russell L, Weinstein M: Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1996.
  27. Economic Report of the President. Transmitted to the Congress, February 2006. Washington, United States Government Printing Office, 2006.
  28. Murman DL, Chen Q, Powell MC, Kuo SB, Bradley CJ, Colenda CC: The incremental direct costs associated with behavioral symptoms in AD. Neurology 2002;59:1721–1729.
  29. Corder LS, Woodbury MA, Manton KG: Proxy response patterns among the aged: effects on estimates of health status and medical care utilization from the 1982–1984 long-term care surveys. J Clin Epidemiol 1996;49:173–182.
  30. Neumann PJ, Araki SS, Gutterman EM: The use of proxy respondents in studies of older adults: lessons, challenges, and opportunities. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000;48:1646–1654.
  31. Bloom BS, de Pouvourville N, Straus WL: Cost of illness of Alzheimer’s disease: how useful are current estimates? Gerontologist 2003;43:158–164.