Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 33, No. 5, 1999
Issue release date: September–October 1999
Caries Res 1999;33:393–400

Effect of Apis mellifera Propolis from Two Brazilian Regions on Caries Development in Desalivated Rats

Koo H. · Rosalen P.L. · Cury J.A. · Park Y.K. · Ikegaki M. · Sattler A.
aDepartment of Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry of Piracicaba, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba, bDepartment of Food Science, College of Food Engineering, State University of Campinas, cDepartment of Entomology, Faculty of Agricultural Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul – FEPAGRO, Porto Alegre, Brazil

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in


The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Apis mellifera propolis collected from two regions of Brazil on caries development in desalivated rats. Ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) were prepared from crude propolis samples collected in Minas Gerais state (MG), southeastern Brazil, and Rio Grande do Sul state (RS), southern Brazil. The flavonoid composition of EEP was analyzed by high–performance thin–layer chromatography (HPTLC) and reversed–phase high–performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For the animal study, 30 specific pathogen–free Wistar rats were infected with Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 and surgically desalivated. The rats were randomly divided into three groups which were treated with 80% ethanol (control), EEP from MG and EEP from RS. The animals were placed in a König–Höfer programmed feeder and received 17 meals of diet 2000 daily at hourly intervals. The solutions were applied on the rat molars (25 μl on molars of each quadrant) twice a day, by using graduate syringes. After 3 weeks, the animals were killed by CO2 asphyxiation. For microbial assessment, the left jaw was removed and sonicated in 154 mM NaCl solution. Dental caries was evaluated according to Larson’s modification of Keyes’ system. The HPTLC patterns and HPLC profiles demonstrated that both quality and quantity of flavonoid aglycones of EEP from MG were different compared to EEP from RS. In general, it is apparent that EEP from RS contained the highest concentrations of pinocembrin, chrysin, acacetin and galangin. The group of animals treated with EEP from RS showed the lowest smooth–surface and sulcal caries scores as well as less caries severity in smooth–surface and sulcal lesions, and these data were statistically different when compared with the control group. The group treated with EEP from MG only demonstrated a significant difference in the severity of sulcal lesions when compared to the control group. The percentage of S. sobrinus was lower in the groups treated with EEP, but did not differ statistically from the control group. The results showed that the cariostatic effect of propolis depends on its composition, and consequently the region of collection of propolis samples.

Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.


  1. Amoros M, Simões CM, Girre L, Sauvager F, Cormier M: Synergistic effect of flavones and flavonols against herpes simplex virus type 1 in cell culture. Comparison with the antiviral activity of propolis. J Nat Prod 1992;55:1732– 1740.
  2. Bankova V, Christov R, Stoev G, Popov S: Determination of phenolics from propolis by capillary gas chromatography. J Chromatogr 1992a; 607:150–153.
  3. Bankova V, Dyulgerov A, Popov S, Evstatieva L, Kuleva L, Pureb O, Zamjansan Z: Propolis produced in Bulgaria and Mongolia: Phenolic compounds and plant origin. Apidologie 1992b;23:79–85.
  4. Bankova VS, Popov SS, Marekov NL: Isopentenyl cinnamates from poplar buds and propolis. Phytochemistry 1989;28:871–873.

    External Resources

  5. Bankova VS, Popov SS, Marekov NL: High–performance liquid chromatographic analysis of flavonoids from propolis. J Chromatogr 1982; 242:135–143.

    External Resources

  6. Bonhevi JS, Coll FV, Jord RE: The composition, active components and bacteriostatic activity of propolis in dietetics. J Am Oil Chem Soc 1994;71:529–532.
  7. Bowen WH, Amsbaugh SM, Monell–Torrens S, Brunelle J, Kuzmiak–Jones H, Cole MF: A method to assess cariogenic potential of food stuffs. J Am Dent Assoc 1980;100:677–681.
  8. Bowen WH, Madison KM, Pearson SK: Influence of desalivation in rats on incidence of caries in intact cagemates. J Dent Res 1988a;67:1316– 1318.
  9. Bowen WH, Pearson SK, Young DA: The effect of desalivation on coronal and root surface caries in rats. J Dent Res 1988b;67:21–23.
  10. Bowen WH, Pearson SK, Young DA, Thibodeau E: The effect of partial desalivation on coronal and root surface caries in rat; in Leach S (ed): Factors Relating to Demineralization and Remineralization of the Teeth. Oxford, IRL Press, 1986, pp 243–250.
  11. Cai L, Wu CD: Compounds from Syzygium aromaticum possessing growth inhibitory activity against oral pathogens. J Nat Prod 1996;59: 987–990.
  12. De Stoppelaar JD, König KG, Plasschaert AJM, van der Hoeven JS: Decreased cariogenicity of a mutant of Streptococcus mutans. Arch Oral Biol 1971;16:971–975.

    External Resources

  13. Dimov V, Ivanovska N, Bankova V, Nikolov N, Popov S: Immunomodulatory action of propolis: IV. Prophylactic activity against gram– negative infections and adjuvant effect of the water–soluble derivative. Vaccine 1992;10: 817–823.
  14. Fitzgerald RJ, Keyes PH: Demonstration of the etiologic role of streptococci in experimental caries in the hamster. J Am Dent Assoc 1960; 61:9–19.
  15. Ghisalberti EL: Propolis: A review. Bee World 1979;60:59–84.
  16. Gibbons RJ: Adherence interactions that may affect microbial ecology in the mouth. J Dent Res 1984;63:378–385.
  17. Gibbons RJ, van Houte J: Bacterial adherence in oral microbial ecology. Annu Ver Microbiol 1975;29:19–44.
  18. Grange JM, Davey RW: Antibacterial properties of propolis (bee glue). J R Soc Med 1990;83: 159–160.
  19. Greenaway W, Scaysbrook T, Whtaley FR: The composition and plant origins of propolis: A report of work at Oxford. Bee World 1990; 71:107–118.
  20. Guggenheim B, Regolati B: Interrelation of eating pattern, plaque formation and caries incidence in 5 stocks of rats. Helv Odontol Acta 1972;16: 1–12.

    External Resources

  21. Hamada S, Koga T, Ooshima T: Virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans and dental caries prevention. J Dent Res 1984;63:407–411.
  22. Hamada S, Slade HD: Biology, immunology and cariogenicity of Streptococcus mutans. Microbiol Rev 1980;44:331–384.
  23. Hertog MGL, Hollman PCH, Katan MB: Content of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids of 28 vegetables and 9 fruits commonly consumed in the Netherlands. J Agric Food Chem 1992;40:2379–2383.
  24. Iio M, Uyeda M, Iwanami T, Nakagawa Y: Flavonoids as a possible preventive of dental caries. Agric Biol Chem 1992;48:2143–2145.
  25. Ikeno K, Ikeno T, Miyazawa C: Effects of propolis on dental caries in rats. Caries Res 1991;25: 347–351.
  26. Keyes PH: Dental caries in the molar teeth of rats. I. Distribution of lesions induced by high carbohydrate low–fat diets. J Dent Res 1958;37: 1077–1087.
  27. König KG, Schimd P, Schimd R: An apparatus for frequency–controlled feeding of small rodents. Arch Oral Biol 1968;13:13–26.
  28. König B: Plant sources of propolis. Bee World 1985;66:136–139.
  29. Koo MH, Park YK: Investigation of flavonoid aglycones in propolis collected by two different varieties of bees in the same region. Biosci Biotech Biochem 1997;61:367–369.
  30. Larson RM: Merits and modifications of scoring rat dental caries by Keyes’ method; in Tanzer JM (ed): Animal Models in Cariology. Microbial Abstr (sp suppl): Washington, IRL Press, 1981, pp 195–203.
  31. Lindenfelser LA: Antimicrobial activity of propolis. Am Bee J 1967;107:90–92.
  32. Loesche WJ: Role of Streptococcus mutans in human dental decay. Microbiol Rev 1986;50: 355–380.
  33. Madison KM, Bowen WH, Pearson SK, Falany JL: Enhancing the virulence of Streptococcus sobrinus in rats. J Dent Res 1991;70:38–43.
  34. Marcucci MC: Propolis: Chemical composition, biological properties and therapeutic activity. Apidologie 1995;26:83–99.
  35. Metzner J, Bekemeier H, Paintz E, Schneidewind E: Zur antimicrobiellen Wirksamkeit von Propolis und Propolisinhaltstoffen. Pharmazie 1979;34:97–102.

    External Resources

  36. Newbrun E, Frostell G: Sugar restriction and substitution for caries prevention. Caries Res 1978;12(suppl 1):65–73.
  37. Osawa K, Yasuda H, Maruyama T, Morita H, Takeya K, Itokawa H: Isoflavanones from the heartwood of Swartzia polyphylla and their antibacterial activity against cariogenic bacteria. Chem Pharm Bull 1992;40:2970–2974.
  38. Park YK, Koo MH, Abreu JAS, Ikegaki M, Cury JA, Rosalen PL: Antimicrobial activity of propolis on oral microorganisms. Curr Microbiol 1998;36:24–28.
  39. Park YK, Koo MH, Ikegaki M, Contado JL: Comparison of the flavonoid aglycone contents of Apis mellifera propolis from various regions of Brazil. Arq Biol Tecnol 1997;40:97–106.
  40. Rosalen PL, Bowen WH, Pearson SK: Effect of copper co–crystallized with sugar on caries development in desalivated rats. Caries Res 1996;30:367–372.
  41. Sabatier S, Amiot MJ, Tacchini, Aubert S: Identification of flavonoids in sunflower honey. J Food Sci 1992;57:773–774.
  42. SAS Institute Inc (ed): JMP® User’s guide: Version 3.1 of JMP. Cary, SAS Institute, 1995.
  43. Tanzer JM, Freedman ML, Fitzgerald RJ: Virulence of mutants defective in glucosyltransferase, dextran mediated aggregation, or dextranase activity; in Mergenhagen SE, Rosan B (ed): Molecular Basis of Oral Microbial Adhesion. Washington, ASM, 1985, pp 204–211.
  44. Tsuchiya H, Sato M, Miyazaki T, Fujiwara S, Tanigaki S, Ohyama M, Tanaka T, Iinuma M: Comparative study on the antibacterial activity of phytochemical flavanones against methicillin–resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Ethnopharmacol 1996;50:27–34.
  45. Vanhaelen M, Vanhaelen–Fastré: High–performance liquid, gas–liquid and thin–layer chromatography of naturally ocurring flavonoids, phenolic and related compounds. J Chromatogr 1980;187:255–260.

    External Resources

  46. Villanueva VR, Barbier M, Gonnet M, Lavie P: Les flavonoides de la propolis. Isolement d’une nouvelle substance bactériostatique: la pinocembrine. Ann Inst Pasteur (Paris) 1970; 118:84–87.

    External Resources

  47. Villanueva VR, Bogdanovsky D, Barbier M, Gonnet M, Lavie P: Sur l’identification de la 3,5,7–trihydroxy flavon (galangine) à partir de la propolis. Ann Inst Pasteur (Paris) 1964;106: 292–302.

Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50