Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 34, No. 1, 2000
Issue release date: January–February 2000
Caries Res 2000;34:20–25
(DOI:10.1159/000016565)

Caries Prevalence after Cessation of Water Fluoridation in La Salud, Cuba

Künzel W. · Fischer T.
Department of Preventive Dentistry, Dental School of Erfurt, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

In the past, caries has usually increased after cessation of water fluoridation. More recently an opposite trend could be observed: DMFT remaining stable or even decreasing further. The aim of the present study conducted in La Salud (Province of Habana) in March 1997 was to analyse the current caries trend under the special climatic and nutritional conditions of the subtropical sugar island Cuba, following the cessation, in 1990, of water fluoridation (0.8 ppm F). Diagnostic evaluations were carried out using the same methods as in 1973 and 1982. Boys and girls aged 6–13 years (N = 414), lifelong residents in La Salud, were examined. Between 1973 and 1982 the mean DMFT had decreased by 71.4%, the mean DMFS by 73.3% and the percentage of caries–free children had increased from 26.3 to 61.6%. In 1997, following the cessation of drinking water fluoridation, in contrast to an expected rise in caries prevalence, DMFT and DMFS values remained at a low level for the 6– to 9–year–olds and appeared to decrease for the 10/11–year–olds (from 1.1 to 0.8) and DMFS (from 1.5 to 1.2). In the 12/13–year–olds, there was a significant decrease (DMFT from 2.1 to 1.1; DMFS from 3.1 to 1.5), while the percentage of caries–free children of this age group had increased from 4.8 (1973) and 33.3 (1982) up to 55.2%. A possible explanation for this unexpected finding and for the good oral health status of the children in La Salud is the effect of the school mouthrinsing programme, which has involved fortnightly mouthrinses with 0.2% NaF solutions (i.e. 15 times/year) since 1990.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Ahlberg JE, Downer MC, Naylor MN: Second International Conference on Declining Caries. Int Dent J 1994;44(suppl 1):363–458.
  2. Attwood D, Blinkhorn AS: Trends in dental health on ten–year–old schoolchildren in South–West Scotland after cessation of water fluoridation. Lancet 1988;8605:266–267.
  3. Backer Dirks O: The benefits of water fluoridation. Caries Res 1974;8(suppl 8):2–15.
  4. Backer Dirks O, Künzel W, Carlos JP: Caries–preventive water fluoridation. Caries Res 1978; 12(suppl 1):7–14.
  5. Birkeland JM, Torell P: Caries–preventive fluoride mouthrinses. Caries Res 1978;12(suppl 1):38– 51.
  6. Bratthall D, Hänsel–Petersson G, Sundberg H: Reasons for the caries decline: What do the experts believe? Eur J Oral Sci 1996;104:416– 422.
  7. Brunelle JA, Carlos JP: Recent trends in dental caries in U.S. children and the effect of water fluoridation. J Dent Res 1990;69:723–727.

    External Resources

  8. Calzadilla AR, Méndez LD, Alfonso AF, Leza JM: Resultados de la fluoruracion del agua potable en 9 localidades del pais. Rev Cubana Estomatol 1992;29:20–26.
  9. Colquhoun J: Why I changed my mind about water fluoridation. Perspect Biol Med 1997;41:29– 44.
  10. Expo–Cuba 1997: Informacion de estomatologia para Expocuba. La Habana, Ministerio de Salud Publica, 1997.
  11. FAOSTAT: Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations. 1998. Http://www.fao.org.
  12. Glass RL: The First International Conference of the Declining Prevalence of Dental Caries. J Dent Res 1982;61:1301–1383.
  13. Jackson D: The clinical diagnosis of dental caries. Br Dent J 1950;88:207.
  14. Horowitz HS, Baume LJ, Backer Dirks O, Davies GN, Slack GL: Principal requirements for controlled clinical trials of caries preventive agents and procedures. Int Dent J 1973;23: 506–516.

    External Resources

  15. Kalsbeek H, Verrips GHW: Dental caries prevalence and the use of fluorides in different European countries. J Dent Res 1990;69:728– 732.
  16. Künzel W: Effect of an interruption in water fluoridation on the caries prevalence of the primary and secondary dentition. Caries Res 1980; 14:304–310.

    External Resources

  17. Künzel W: Reduction in caries after 7 years of water fluoridation under climatic conditions in Cuba. Caries Res 1982;16:272–276.

    External Resources

  18. Künzel W: Caries decline in Deutschland: Eine Studie zur Entwicklung der Mundgesundheit. Heidelberg, Hüthig, 1997.
  19. Künzel W: Rise and fall of caries prevalence in Eastern Europe: Reasons and consequences. Acta Stomatol Croat 1998;32:587–594.
  20. Künzel W, Fischer T: Rise and fall of caries prevalence in German towns with different F concentrations in drinking water. Caries Res 1997;31:166–173.
  21. Künzel W, Soto Padron F: Relación entre la frecuencia e intensidad de las manchas blancas del esmalte, causadas por la fluorosis dental y la concentración de flúor en el agua potable de Cuba. Rev Cub Estomatol 1974;11:165–174.
  22. Künzel W, Soto Padron F: Epidemiologische Studien über die Beziehungen des kariesprotektiven Fluorgehaltes im Trinkwasser und dem Auftreten von Schmelzflecken unter den klimatischen Bedingungen Kubas. Zahn Mund Kieferheilkd 1976;64:466–479.
  23. Künzel W, Soto Padron F: Zur kariesprotektiven Effektivität fluoridangereicherten Trinkwassers unter den klimatischen Bedingungen Kubas. Zahn Mund Kieferheilkd 1983;71: 341–348.
  24. Künzel W, Soto Padron F, Maiwald HJ, Borroto RC: Langzeitergebnisse nach kollektiven Mundspülungen mit Natriumfluorid–Lösung in der Republik Kuba. Zahn Mund Kieferheilkd 1974;62:683–689.
  25. Lekesová I, Rokytová K, Salandová M, Mrklas L: Zastaveni fluoridace pitné vody v Praze. Progresdent 1996;6:15–17.
  26. Lemke CW, Doherty JW, Arra MC: Controlled fluoridation: The dental effects of discontinuation in Antigo, Wisconsin. J Am Dent Assoc 1970; 80:782–786.
  27. Lewis DW, Banting DW: Water fluoridation: Current effectiveness and dental fluorosis. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1994;22:153– 158.
  28. Lichts FO: Internationales zuckerwirtschaftliches Jahr– und Adressbuch. Ratzeburg, 1991.
  29. Maiwald HJ, Borroto R, De Zayas B: Kariesverbreitung bei kubanischen Kindern in Gebieten mit überwiegendem Konsum braunen und raffinierten Zuckers. Stomatol DDR 1974;24: 586–592.

    External Resources

  30. Maiwald HJ, Miyares SR, Despaigne Banos F: Ergebnisse der Fluoridlack–Applikation im Rahmen eines staatlichen Programms zur kollektiven Kariesprävention in der Republik Kuba nach 41/2jähriger Laufzeit. Stomatol DDR 1978;28:192–195.

    External Resources

  31. Mansbridge JN: The Kilmarnock–Studies. Appendix to: The Fluoridation Studies in the United Kingdom and Results Achieved after 11 Years. London, HMSO, 1969.
  32. Marthaler TM, Brunelle J, Downer M, König KG, Künzel W, O’Mullane D, Moller IJ, Fehr von der F, Vrbic V: The prevalence of dental caries in Europe 1990–1995. Caries Res 1996;30: 237–255.
  33. Miyares RS: Tasa adecuada de fluor en el agua para lograr el maximo efecto benefico enla disminucion de la incidencia de las caries dental. Rev Cub Estomatol 1971;8:119–124.
  34. Mojaiber A, Rosales MS, Remires AC: Fluoruracion de sal de consumo humano. La Habana, Ministerio de Salud Publica, 1997.
  35. Murray JJ, Rugg–Gunn AJ: Water fluoridation update; in Stewart W (ed): Pediatric Dentistry Scientific Foundations and Clinical Practice. St Louis, Mosby 1982, pp 717–729.
  36. Newbrun E: Effectiveness of water fluoridation. J Publ Health Dent 1989;49:279–289.
  37. Rølla G, Øgaard B, de Almeida Cruz R: Clinical effect and mechanisms of cariostatic action of fluoride–containing toothpastes: A review. Int Dent J 1991;41:171–174.
  38. Stephen KW, McCall DR, Tullis JI: Caries prevalence in Northern Scotland before and 5 years after water fluoridation. Br Dent J 1987;163: 324–326.
  39. Treasure ET, Dever JG: The prevalence of caries in 5–year–old children living in fluoridated and non–fluoridated communities in New Zealand. NZ Dent J 1992;88:9–13.
  40. WHO–Euro: Country Profiles on Oral Health in Europe 1986. Copenhagen, World Health Organization, 1986.


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50