Blood Purif 2009;27:64–69
(DOI:10.1159/000167011)

Reduction of Hepatitis C Virus Using Lectin Affinity Plasmapheresis in Dialysis Patients

Tullis R.H.a · Duffin R.P.a · Handley H.H.a · Sodhi P.b · Menon J.a · Joyce J.A.a · Kher V.b
aAethlon Medical Inc., San Diego, Calif., USA; bFortis Flt. Lt. Rajan Dhall Hospital, New Delhi, India
email Corresponding Author


 goto top of outline Key Words

  • Hepatitis C virus
  • Lectin affinity
  • Hemodialysis
  • Galanthus nivalis agglutinin

 goto top of outline Abstract

Background/Aims: To test the safety and efficacy of the Aethlon Hemopurifier®, a lectin affinity cartridge, in clearing hepatitis C virus (HCV) from the blood of HCV-positive end-stage renal disease patients undergoing dialysis. Viral RNA was measured using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results: HCV clearance from plasma or blood was measured using either direct capture on immobilized Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) or using miniature plasmapheresis cartridges containing immobilized GNA. HCV in plasma samples was rapidly cleared by direct affinity capture (t1/2 = approx. 20 min) and HCV in human blood was cleared using the Hemopurifier (t1/2 = 2–3 h). Institutional-review-board-sanctioned clinical safety studies were conducted at the Apollo and Fortis Hospitals in India. At Apollo, 4 patients were treated 3 times/week for 2 weeks. HCV captured on the Hemopurifier averaged 8.9 × 108 viral copies/cartridge (n = 5), representing approximately 30% of the initial viral body burden. At Fortis, 3 patients treated 3 times/week for 1 week completed the viral load studies. Two patients showed measurable viral load reduction, while the third showed both increases and decreases in viral load. After Hemopurifier treatment, average HCV viral load was reduced by 57%. Surprisingly, average viral load was also 82% lower 7 days after treatment. Control samples also showed a marked transient reduction in HCV viral load as previously reported. Conclusion: The Hemopurifier rapidly cleared HCV from blood treated in vitro. In patients, the combination of the Hemopurifier plus dialysis decreased HCV viral load by 57% in 1 week. Moreover, viral load reduction continued up to 7 days after treatment.

Copyright © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel


 goto top of outline References
  1. Alter MJ, Kruszon-Moran D, Nainan OV, McQuillan GM, Gao F, Moyer LA, Kaslow RA, Margolis HS: The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in the United States, 1988 through 1994. N Engl J Med 1999;341:556–562.
  2. Worman HT: The Hepatitis C Sourcebook, ed 1. New York, McGraw-Hill, 2002.
  3. Bendinelli M, Pistello M, Maggi F, Vatteroni M: Blood-borne hepatitis viruses: hepatitis B, C, D and G viruses and TT virus; in Specter SC, Hodinka RL, Young SA (eds): Clinical Virology Manual, ed 3. Washington, ASM Press, 2000.
  4. Robertson B, Myers G, Howard C, Brettin T, Bukh J, Gaschen B, Gojobori T, Maertens G, Mizokami M, Nainan O, Netesov S, Nishioka K, Shin i T, Simmonds P, Smith D, Stuyver L, Weiner A: Classification, nomenclature, and database development for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and related viruses: proposals for standardization. International Committee on Virus Taxonomy. Arch Virol 1998;143:2493–2503.
  5. Simmonds P, Bukh J, Combet C, Deleage G, Enomoto N, Feinstone S, Halfon P, Inchauspe G, Kuiken C, Maertens G, Mizokami M, Murphy DG, Okamoto H, Pawlotsky JM, Penin F, Sablon E, Shin-I T, Stuyver LJ, Thiel HJ, Viazov S, Weiner AJ, Widell A: Consensus proposals for a unified system of nomenclature of hepatitis C virus genotypes. Hepatology 2005;42:962–973.
  6. da Silva Cardoso M, Siemoneit K, Sturm D, Krone C, Moradpour D, Kubanek B: Isolation and characterization of human monoclonal antibodies against hepatitis C virus envelope glycoproteins. J Med Virol 1998;55:28–34.
  7. Ralston R, Thudium K, Berger K, Kuo C, Gervase B, Hall J, Selby M, Kuo G, Houghton M, Choo QL: Characterization of hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein complexes expressed by recombinant vaccinia viruses. J Virol 1993;67:6753–6761.
  8. Owsianka A, Clayton RF, Loomis-Price LD, McKeating JA, Patel AH: Functional analysis of hepatitis C virus E2 glycoproteins and virus-like particles reveals structural dissimilarities between different forms of E2. J Gen Virol 2001;82:1877–1883.
  9. Badalamenti S, Catania A, Lunghi G, Covini G, Bredi E, Brancaccio D, Salvadori M, Como G, Ponticelli C, Graziani G: Changes in viremia and circulating interferon-alpha during hemodialysis in hepatitis C virus-positive patients: only coincidental phenomena? Am J Kidney Dis 2003;42:143–150.
  10. Fernandez JL, Valtuille R, Butera H, Fay F, Lef L, Rendo P: Influence of hemodialysis procedure on HCV RNA detection in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Ren Fail 2004;26:369–373.
  11. Mizuno M, Higuchi T, Yanai M, Kanmatsuse K, Esumi M: Dialysis-membrane-dependent reduction and adsorption of circulating hepatitis C virus during hemodialysis. Nephron 2002;91:235–242.
  12. Fabrizi F, Bunnapradist S, Lunghi G, Martin P: Kinetics of hepatitis C virus load during hemodialysis: novel perspectives. J Nephrol 2003;16:467–475.
  13. Ramratnam B, Bonhoeffer S, Binley J, Hurley A, Zhang L, Mittler JE, Markowitz M, Moore JP, Perelson AS, Ho DD: Rapid production and clearance of HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus assessed by large volume plasma apheresis. Lancet 1999;354:1782–1785.
  14. Tullis RH, Duffin RP, Zech M, Ambrus JL Jr: Affinity hemodialysis for antiviral therapy. 1. Removal of HIV-1 from cell culture supernatants, plasma, and blood. Ther Apher 2002;6:213–220.
  15. Andre P, Komurian-Pradel F, Deforges S, Perret M, Berland JL, Sodoyer M, Pol S, Brechot C, Paranhos-Baccala G, Lotteau V: Characterization of low- and very-low-density hepatitis C virus RNA-containing particles. J Virol 2002;76:6919–6928.

 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Dr. Rick Tullis
Aethlon Medical Inc.
3030 Bunker Hill St.
San Diego, CA 92109 (USA)
Tel. +1 858 459 7800, Fax +1 858 272 2738, E-Mail rhtullis@aethlonmedical.com


 goto top of outline Article Information

Published online: January 23, 2009
Number of Print Pages : 6
Number of Figures : 2, Number of Tables : 1, Number of References : 15


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Blood Purification

Vol. 27, No. 1, Year 2009 (Cover Date: January 2009)

Journal Editor: Ronco C. (Vicenza)
ISSN: 0253-5068 (Print), eISSN: 1421-9735 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/BPU


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.