In addition to their location at terminal positions, telomeric-like repeats are also present at internal sites of the chromosomes (intrachromosomal or interstitial telomeric sequences, ITSs). According to their sequence organization and genomic location, two different kinds of ITSs can be identified: (1) heterochromatic ITSs (het-ITSs), large (up to hundreds of kb) stretches of telomeric-like DNA localized mainly at centromeres, and (2) short ITSs (s-ITSs), short stretches of telomeric hexamers distributed at internal sites of the chromosomes. Het-ITSs have been only described in some vertebrate species and they probably represent the remnants of evolutionary chromosomal rearrangements. On the contrary, s-ITSs are probably present in all mammalian genomes although they have been described in detail only in some completely sequenced genomes. Sequence database analysis revealed the presence of 83, 79, 244 and 250 such s-ITSs in the human, chimpanzee, mouse and rat genomes, respectively. Analysis of the flanking sequences suggested that s-ITSs were inserted during the repair of DNA double-strand breaks that occurred in the course of evolution. An extensive comparative analysis of the s-ITS loci and their orthologous ‘empty’ loci confirmed this hypothesis and suggested that the repair event involved the direct action of telomerase. Whereas het-ITSs seem to be intrinsically prone to breakage, the instability of s-ITSs is more controversial. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that s-ITSs are probably not themselves prone to breakage but represent ‘scars’ of ancient breakage that may have occurred within fragile regions. This study will review the current knowledge on these two types of ITS, their molecular organization, how they arose during evolution, their implications for chromosomal instability and their potential applications as phylogenetic/forensic markers.
Copyright / Drug Dosage
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.