Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 20, No. 1, 1998
Issue release date: January–February 1998
Citation Classic -- Free Access
link This article was featured as a 'Citation Classic' in C. Cepeda, M.S. Levine, Dopamine-NMDA Receptor Interactions: Twenty Years Later, Dev Neurosci 2012;34:2-4 (DOI:10.1159/000338590), free access
Dev Neurosci 1998;20:1–18
(DOI:10.1159/000017294)

Dopamine and N-Methyl-D- Aspartate Receptor Interactions in the Neostriatum

Cepeda C. · Levine M.S.
Mental Retardation Research Center, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, Calif., USA
email Corresponding Author

Abstract

This review examines dopamine (DA) and glutamate receptor interactions in the neostriatum (NS) primarily from a neurophysiological perspective. Historically, a clear understanding of the function of DA in the NS has been difficult because it was considered a classical neurotransmitter with either excitatory or inhibitory actions and because many of the data were obtained by use of varying methodologies. When DA is considered a neuromodulator whose role is to alter how NS cells respond to glutamatergic inputs, many of its actions can be accounted for and predicted with great accuracy within a model of receptor subtype. In this model, DA via activation of D1 receptors potentiates responses mediated by activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. DA via activation of D2 receptors attenuates responses mediated by activation of non-NMDA receptors. Outcomes of combinations of NMDA and D2 and non-NMDA and D1 receptors are not as predictable. The mechanisms underlying the D1-NMDA receptor interactions appear to involve alterations in cell excitability mediated by activation of Ca2+ conductances and/or phosphorylation of NMDA receptors. Less is known about mechanisms underlying the D2-non-NMDA receptor interaction. The functional implications of this model in setting membrane potentials, signal-to-noise ratio, plasticity and excitotoxicity are discussed.


 goto top of outline Key Words

  • Dopamine
  • Electrophysiology
  • Neostriatum
  • N-methyl-D-aspartate
  • Receptor interactions

 goto top of outline Abstract

This review examines dopamine (DA) and glutamate receptor interactions in the neostriatum (NS) primarily from a neurophysiological perspective. Historically, a clear understanding of the function of DA in the NS has been difficult because it was considered a classical neurotransmitter with either excitatory or inhibitory actions and because many of the data were obtained by use of varying methodologies. When DA is considered a neuromodulator whose role is to alter how NS cells respond to glutamatergic inputs, many of its actions can be accounted for and predicted with great accuracy within a model of receptor subtype. In this model, DA via activation of D1 receptors potentiates responses mediated by activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. DA via activation of D2 receptors attenuates responses mediated by activation of non-NMDA receptors. Outcomes of combinations of NMDA and D2 and non-NMDA and D1 receptors are not as predictable. The mechanisms underlying the D1-NMDA receptor interactions appear to involve alterations in cell excitability mediated by activation of Ca2+ conductances and/or phosphorylation of NMDA receptors. Less is known about mechanisms underlying the D2-non-NMDA receptor interaction. The functional implications of this model in setting membrane potentials, signal-to-noise ratio, plasticity and excitotoxicity are discussed.


 goto top of outline References
  1. Akaike A, Ohno Y, Sasa M, Takaori S (1987) Excitatory and inhibitory effects of dopamine on neuronal activity of the caudate nucleus neurons in vitro. Brain Res 418:262–272.
  2. Albin RL, Makowiec RL, Hollingsworth ZR, Dure LS, Penney JB, Young AB (1992) Excitatory amino acid binding sites in the basal ganglia of the rat: A quantitative autoradiographic study. Neuroscience 46:35–48.
  3. Altemus KL, Levine MS (1996) Potassium channel blockade does not alter the modulatory effects of dopamine in neostriatal slices. Brain Res 718:212–216.
  4. Altemus KL, Zhang M, Yu Q, Watson IB, Drago I, Sibley DR, Levine MS (1997) Long-term plasticity in the dopamine D1A-receptor deficient mutant mouse. Soc Neurosci Abstr 23:189.
  5. Arbuthnott GW, Wickens JR (1996) Dopamine cells are neurones too! Trends Neurosci 19:279–280.
  6. Ariano MA, Larson ER, Noblett KL, Sibley DR, Levine MS (1997) Coexpression of striatal dopamine receptor subtypes and excitatory amino acid subunits. Synapse 26:400–414.
  7. Ariano MA, Stromski CJ, Smyk-Randall EM, Sibley DR (1992) D2 dopamine receptor localization on striatonigral neurons. Neurosci Lett 144:215–220.
  8. Armstrong CM, Gilly WF (1992) Access resistance and space clamp problems associated with whole-cell patch clamping. Methods Enzymol 207:100–122.
  9. Artalejo CR, Ariano MA, Perlman RL, Fox AP (1990) Activation of facilitation calcium channels in chromaffin cells by D1 dopamine receptors through a cAMP/protein kinase A-dependent mechanism. Nature 348:239–242.
  10. Artola A, Brocher S, Singer W (1990) Different voltage-dependent thresholds for inducing long-term depression and long-term potentiation in slices of rat visual cortex. Nature 347:69–72.
  11. Artola A, Singer W (1993) Long-term depression of excitatory synaptic transmission and its relationship to long-term potentiation. Trends Neurosci 16:480–487.
  12. Bargas J, Galarraga E, Aceves J (1988) Electrotonic properties of neostriatal neurons are modulated by extracellular potassium. Exp Brain Res 72:390–398.
  13. Bargas J, Howe A, Eberwine J, Cao Y, Surmeier DJ (1994) Cellular and molecular characterization of Ca2+ currents in acutely isolated, adult rat neostriatal neurons. J Neurosci 14:6667–6686.
  14. Beal MF, Hyman BT, Koroshetz W (1993) Do defects in mitochondrial energy metabolism underlie the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases? Trends Neurosci 16:125–131.
  15. Ben-Shachar D, Zuk R, Glinka Y (1995) Dopamine neurotoxicity: Inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. J Neurochem 64:718–723.
  16. Bergmann-Erb D, Engberg I, ten Bruggencate G (1988) Biogenic amines facilitate N-methyl-DL-aspartate responses in the guinea-pig neocortex in vitro. Pflügers Arch Suppl 411:R127.
  17. Bergson C, Mrzljak L, Smiley JF, Pappy M, Levenson R, Goldman-Rakic PS (1995) Regional, cellular, and subcellular variations in the distribution of D1 and D5 dopamine receptors in primate brain. J Neurosci 15:7821–7836.
  18. Bernardi G, Marciani MG, Morocutti C, Pavone F, Stanzione P (1978) The action of dopamine on rat caudate neurones intracellularly recorded. Neurosci Lett 8:235–240.
  19. Bertorello AM, Hopfield JF, Aperia A, Greengard P (1990) Inhibition by dopamine of (Na(+)+K+)ATPase activity in neostriatal neurons through D1 and D2 dopamine receptor synergism. Nature 347:386–388.
  20. Bevan P, Bradshaw CM, Szabadi E (1975) Effects of desipramine on neuronal responses to dopamine, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine and acetylcholine in the caudate nucleus of the rat. Br J Pharmacol 54:285–293.
  21. Blank T, Nijholt I, Behrsing H, Spiess J (1996) Modulation of NMDA-receptor function in the rat striatum-interplay of kinases and phosphatases. Soc Neurosci Abstr 22:380.
  22. Blank T, Nijholt I, Teichert U, Kugler H, Spiess J (1997) PKA-dependent modulation of NMDA responses: Putative role of the phosphoprotein DARPP-32. Soc Neurosci Abstr 23:707.
  23. Bloom FE, Costa E, Salmoiraghi GC (1965) Anesthesia and the responsiveness of individual neurons of the caudate nucleus of the cat to acetylcholine, norepinephrine and dopamine administered by microelectrophoresis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 150:244–252.
  24. Brown JR, Arbuthnott GW (1983) The electrophysiology of dopamine (D2) receptors: A study of the actions of dopamine on corticostriatal transmission. Neuroscience 10:349–355.
  25. Brown NA, Seabrook GR (1995) Phosphorylation- and voltage-dependent inhibition of neuronal calcium currents by activation of human D2(short) dopamine receptors. Br J Pharmacol 115:459–466.
  26. Buchwald NA, Altemus KL, Cepeda C, Levine MS (1997) Cholinergic modulation of neostriatal synaptic responses mediated by activation of glutamate receptors. Soc Neurosci Abstr 23:189.
  27. Buisson A, Pateau V, Plotkine M, Boulu RG (1991) Nigrostriatal pathway modulates striatum vulnerability to quinolinic acid. Neurosci Lett 131:257–259.
  28. Bunzow JR, Van Van Tol HH, Grandy DK, Albert P, Salon J, Christie M, Machida CA, Neve KA, Civelli O (1988) Cloning and expression of a rat D2 dopamine receptor cDNA. Nature 336:783–787.
  29. Calabresi P, Benedetti M, Mercuri NB, Bernardi G (1988) Endogenous dopamine and dopaminergic agonists modulate synaptic excitation in neostriatum: Intracellular studies from naive and catecholamine-depleted rats. Neuroscience 27:145–157.
  30. Calabresi P, Centonze D, Pisani A, Gubellini P, Marfia G, Bernardi G (1997a) Endogenous acetylcholine increases NMDA responses recorded from striatal spiny neurons. Soc Neurosci Abstr 23:2022.
  31. Calabresi P, De Murtas M, Pisani A, Stefani A, Sancesario G, Mercuri NB, Bernardi G (1995a) Vulnerability of medium spiny striatal neurons to glutamate: Role of Na+/K+ ATPase. Eur J Neurosci 7:1674–1683.
  32. Calabresi P, Fedele E, Pisani A, Fontana G, Mercuri NB, Bernardi G, Raiteri M (1995b) Transmitter release associated with long-term synaptic depression in rat corticostriatal slices. Eur J Neurosci 7:1889–1894.
  33. Calabresi P, Maj R, Pisani A, Mercuri NB, Bernardi G (1992) Long-term synaptic depression in the striatum: Physiological and pharmacological characterization. J Neurosci 12:4424–4233.
  34. Calabresi P, Mercuri N, Stanzioni P, Stefani A, Bernardi G (1987a) Intracellular studies on the dopamine-induced firing inhibition of neostriatal neurons in vitro: Evidence for D1 receptor involvement. Neuroscience 20:757–771.
  35. Calabresi P, Mercuri NB, Stefani A, Bernardi G (1990) Synaptic and intrinsic control of membrane excitability of neostriatal neurons. I. An in vivo analysis. J Neurophysiol 63:651–662.
  36. Calabresi P, Misgeld U, Dodt HU (1987b) Intrinsic membrane properties of neostriatal neurons can account for their low level of spontaneous activity. Neuroscience 20:293–303.
  37. Calabresi P, Pisani A, Centonze D, Bernardi G (1997b) Synaptic plasticity and physiological interactions between dopamine and glutamate in the striatum. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 21:519–523.
  38. Calabresi P, Pisani A, Mercuri NB, Bernardi G (1996) The corticostriatal projection: From synaptic plasticity to dysfunctions of the basal ganglia. Trends Neurosci 19:19–24.
  39. Calabresi P, Pisani A, Mercuri NB, Bernardi G (1994) Post-receptor mechanisms underlying striatal long-term depression. J Neurosci 14:4871–4881.
  40. Calabresi P, Saiardi A, Pisani A, Baik JH, Centonze D, Mercuri NB, Bernardi G, Borrelli E (1997c) Abnormal synaptic plasticity in the striatum of mice lacking dopamine D2 receptors. J Neurosci 17:4536–4544.
  41. Cameron DL, Williams JT (1993) Dopamine D1 receptors facilitate transmitter release. Nature 336:344–347.
  42. Carlsson M, Carlsson A (1990) Interactions between glutamatergic and monoaminergic systems within the basal ganglia-implications for schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease. Trends Neurosci 13:272–276.
  43. Cepeda C, Buchwald NA, Levine MS (1993) Neuromodulatory actions of dopamine in the neostriatum are dependent upon the excitatory amino acid receptor subtypes activated. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:9576–9580.
  44. Cepeda C, Chandler SH, Shumate LW, Levine MS (1995a) Persistent Na+ conductance in medium-sized neostriatal neurons: Characterization using infrared videomicroscopy and whole cell patch-clamp recordings. J Neurophysiol 74:1343–1348.
  45. Cepeda C, Colwell CS, Itri JN, Chandler SH, Levine MS (1998) Dopaminergic modulation of NMDA-induced whole-cell currents in neostriatal neurons in slice: Contribution of calcium conductances. J Neurophysiol 79:82–94.
  46. Cepeda C, Li Z, Levine MS (1996a) Aging reduces neostriatal responsiveness to N-methyl-D-aspartate and dopamine: An in vitro electrophysiological study. Neuroscience 73:733–750.
  47. Cepeda C, Peacook W, Levine MS, Buchwald NA (1991) Iontophoretic application of NMDA produces different types of excitatory responses in developing human cortical and caudate neurons. Neurosci Lett 126:167–171.
  48. Cepeda C, Radisavljevic Z, Peacock W, Levine MS, Buchwald NA (1992) Differential modulation by dopamine of responses evoked by excitatory amino acids in human cortex. Synapse 11:330–341.
  49. Cepeda C, Shumate L, Colwell CS, Levine MS (1996b) NMDA-receptor development in neostriatum: II. Whole-cell voltage clamp analysis of currents in visually identified cells. Soc Neurosci Abstr 22:408.
  50. Cepeda C, Walsh JP, Hull CD, Buchwald NA, Levine MS (1989) Intracellular neurophysiological analysis reveals alterations in excitation in striatal neurons in aged rats. Brain Res 494:215–226.
  51. Cepeda C, Walsh JP, Peacock W, Buchwald NA, Levine MS (1994) Neurophysiological, pharmacological and morphological properties of human caudate neurons recorded in vitro. Neuroscience 59:89–103.
  52. Cepeda C, Yu Q, Colwell CS, Buchwald NA, Levine MS (1995b) NMDA-induced excitotoxicity in visually identified neostriatal neurons in slices. Modulation by dopamine. Soc Neurosci Abstr 21:912.
  53. Chapman AG, Durmuller N, Lees GJ, Meldrum BS (1989) Excitotoxicity of NMDA and kainic acid is modulated by nigrostriatal dopaminergic fibres. Neurosci Lett 107:256–260.
  54. Charpier S, Deniau JM (1997) In vivo activity-dependent plasticity at cortco-striatal connections. Evidence for physiological long-term potentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:7036–7040.
  55. Cheramy A, Romo R, Godeheu G, Baruch P, Glowinski J (1986) In vivo presynaptic control of dopamine release in the cat caudate nucleus. II. Facilitatory or inhibitory influence of L-glutamate. Neuroscience 19:1081–1090.
  56. Cherubini E, Herrling PL, Lanfumey L, Stanzione P (1988) Excitatory amino acids in synaptic excitation of rat striatal neurones in vitro. J Physiol (Lond) 400:677–690.
  57. Cherubini E, Lanfumey L (1987a) A ouabain-sensitive hyperpolarization in rat striatal neurones in vitro. Neurosci Lett 78:338–342.
  58. Cherubini E, Lanfumey L (1987b) An inward calcium current underlying regenerative calcium potentials in rat striatal neurons in vitro enhanced by Bay K 8644. Neuroscience 21:997–1005.
  59. Chesselet MF, Delfs JM (1996) Basal ganglia and movement disorders: An update. Trends Neurosci 19:417–422.
  60. Chiodo LA, Berger TW (1986) Interactions between dopamine and amino acid-induced excitation and inhibition in the striatum. Brain Res 375:198–203.
  61. Choi S, Lovinger DM (1997) Decreased probability of neurotransmitter release underlies striatal long-term depression and postnatal development of corticostriatal synapses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:2665–2670.
  62. Civelli O, Bunzow JR, Grandy DK (1993) Molecular diversity of the dopamine receptors. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 33:281–307.
  63. Colwell CS, Altemus KL, Cepeda C, Levine MS (1996) Regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced toxicity in the neostriatum: A role for metabotropic glutamate receptors? Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:1200–1204.
  64. Colwell CS, Levine MS (1995) Excitatory synaptic transmission in neostriatal neurons: Regulation by cyclic AMP-dependent mechanisms. J Neurosci 15:1704–1713.
  65. Colwell CS, Levine MS (1996) Glutamate receptor-induced toxicity in neostriatal cells. Brain Res 724:205–212.
  66. Cowan RL, Wilson CJ (1994) Spontaneous firing patterns and axonal projections of single corticostriatal neurons in the rat medial agranular cortex. J Neurophysiol 71:17–32.
  67. Das S, Grunert M, Williams L, Vincent SR (1997) NMDA and D1 receptors regulate the phosphorylation of CREB and the induction of c-fos in striatal neurons in primary culture. Synapse 25:227–233.
  68. De Fazio T, Walsh JP (1995) Differential ontogeny of calcium currents in the rat nigrostriatal system. Soc Neurosci Abstr 25:1577.
  69. Di Chiara G, Morelli M, Consolo S (1994) Modulatory functions of neurotransmitters in the striatum: ACh/dopamine/NMDA interactions. Trends Neurosci 17:228–233.
  70. Di Figlia M (1990) Excitotoxic injury of the neostriatum: A Model for Huntington’s disease. Trends Neurosci 13:286–289.
  71. Dodt HU, Hager G, Zieglgänsberger W (1993) Direct observation of neurotoxicity in brain slices with infrared videomicroscopy. J Neurosci Methods 50:165–171.
  72. Dolphin AC (1996) Facilitation of Ca2+ current in excitable cells. Trends Neurosci 19:35–43.
  73. Eilers J, Konnerth A (1997) Dendritic signal integration. Curr Opin Neurobiol 7:385–390.
  74. Ewald DA, Levitan IB (1987) Ion channels regulated by calcium; in Kaczmarek LK, Levitan IB (eds): Neuromodulation. New York, Oxford University Press, pp 138–158.
  75. Ferroni A, Galli A, Mazzanti M (1996) Functional role of low-voltage-activated dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca2+ channels during the action potential in adult rat sensory neurones. Pflügers Arch 431:954–963.
  76. Filloux F, Wamsley JK (1991) Dopaminergic modulation of excitotoxicity in rat striatum: Evidence from nigrostriatal lesions. Synapse 8:281–288.
  77. Flores-Hernández J, Galarraga E, Bargas J (1994) Dopamine selects glutamatergic inputs to neostriatal neurons. Synapse 25:185–195.
  78. Fraser DD, MacVicar BA (1994) Dopamine modulates NMDA-activated currents in striatal and cortical neurons. Soc Neurosci Abstr 20:481.
  79. Freedman JE, Weight FF (1988) Single K+ channels activated by D2 dopamine receptors in acutely dissociated neurons from rat corpus striatum. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:3618–3622.
  80. Freund TF, Powell JF, Smith AD (1984) Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive boutons in synaptic contact with identified striatonigral neurons, with particular reference to dendritic spines. Neuroscience 13:1189–1215.
  81. Galarraga E, Hernández-Lopez S, Reyes A, Barral J, Bargas J (1997) Dopamine facilitates striatal EPSPs through an L-type Ca2+ conductance. Neuroreport 8:2183–2186.
  82. Garcia-Muñoz M, Young SJ, Groves PM (1991) Terminal excitability of the corticostriatal pathway. I. Regulation by dopamine receptor stimulation. Brain Res 551:195–206.
  83. Gelbard HA, Teicher MH, Faedda G, Baldessarini RJ (1989) Postnatal development of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor sites in rat striatum. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 49:123–130.
  84. Gerfen CR, Engber TM, Mahan LC, Susel Z, Chase TN, Monsma FJ, Sibley DR (1990) D1 and D2 dopamine receptor-regulated gene expression of striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons. Science 250:1429–1432.
  85. Girault JA, Spampinato U, Glowinski J, Besson MJ (1986) In vivo release of [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid in the rat neostriatum. II. Opposing effects of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor stimulation in the dorsal caudate putamen. Neuroscience 19:1109–1117.
  86. Globus MY, Busto R, Dietrich WD, Martinez E, Valdes I, Ginsberg MD (1988) Intra-ischemic extracellular release of dopamine and glutamate is associated with striatal vulnerability to ischemia. Neurosci Lett 91:36–40.
  87. Globus MY, Ginsberg MD, Dietrich WD, Busto R, Scheinberg P (1987) Substantia nigra lesion protects against ischemic damage in the striatum. Neurosci Lett 80:251–256.
  88. Gonon F (1997) Prolonged and extrasynaptic excitatory action of dopamine mediated by D1 receptors in the rat striatum in vivo. J Neurosci 17:5972–5978.
  89. Gonon F, Sundstrom L (1996) Excitatory effects of dopamine released by impulse flow in the rat nucleus accumbens in vivo. Neuroscience 75:13–18.
  90. Grace AA (1991) Phasic versus tonic dopamine release and the modulation of dopamine system responsivity: A hypothesis for the etiology of schizophrenia. Neuroscience 41:1–24.
  91. Grace AA, Bunney BS (1984) The control of firing pattern in nigral dopamine neurons: Burst firing. J Neurosci 4:2877–2890.
  92. Graybiel AM (1995) The basal ganglia. Trends Neurosci 18:60–62.
  93. Greenamyre JT (1993) Glutamate-dopamine interactions in the basal ganglia: Relationship to Parkinson’s disease. J Neural Transm Gen Sect 91:225–269.
  94. Greengard P, Jen J, Nairn AC, Stevens CF (1991) Enhancement of the glutamate response by cAMP-dependent protein kinase in hippocampal neurons. Science 253:1135–1138.
  95. Greif GJ, Lin YJ, Liu JC, Freedman JE (1995) Dopamine-modulated potassium channels on rat striatal neurons: Specific activation and cellular expression. J Neurosci 15:4533–4544.
  96. Harvey J, Lacey MG (1997) A postsynaptic interaction between dopamine D1 and NMDA receptors promotes presynaptic inhibition in the rat nucleus accumbens via adenosine release. J Neurosci 17:5271–5280.
  97. Hastings TG, Zigmond MJ (1997) Loss of dopaminergic neurons in parkinsonism: Possible role of reactive dopamine metabolites. J Neural Transm Suppl 49:103–110.
  98. Hernández-Lopez S, Bargas J, Surmeier DJ, Reyes A, Galarraga E (1997) D1 receptor activation enhances evoked discharge in striatal medium spiny neurons by modulating an L-type Ca2+ conductance. J Neurosci 17:3334–3342.
  99. Herrling PL (1985) Pharmacology of the corticocaudate excitatory postsynpatic potential in the cat: Evidence for its mediation by quisqualate- or kainate receptors. Neuroscience 14:417–426.
  100. Herrling PL, Hull CD (1980) Iontophoretically applied dopamine depolarizes and hyperpolarizes the membrane of cat caudate neurons. Brain Res 192;441–462.
  101. Herrling PL, Morris R, Salt TE (1983) Effects of excitatory amino acids and their antagonists on membrane and action potentials of cat caudate neurones. J Physiol (Lond) 339:207–222.
  102. Hersch SM, Ciliax BJ, Gutekunst CA, Rees HD, Heilman CJ, Yung KK, Bolam JP, Ince E, Yi H, Levey AI (1995) Electron microscopic analysis of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor proteins in the dorsal striatum and their synaptic relationships with motor corticostriatal afferents. J Neurosci 15:5222–5237.
  103. Hertz A, Zieglgänsberger W (1968) The influence of microelectrophoretically applied biogenic amines, cholinomimetics and procaine on synaptic excitation in the corpus striatum. Int J Neuropharmacol 7:221–230.
  104. Hirata K, Yim CY, Mogenson GJ (1984) Excitatory input from sensory motor cortex to neostriatum and its modification by conditioning stimulation of the substantia nigra. Brain Res 321:1–8.
  105. Hoehn K, Watson TW, MacVicar BA (1993) Multiple types of calcium channels in acutely isolated rat neostriatal neurons. J Neurosci 13:1244–1257.
  106. Hollmann M, Heinemann S (1994) Cloned glutamate receptors. Annu Rev Neurosci 17:31–108.
  107. Hoyt KR, Reynolds IJ, Hastings TG (1997) Mechanisms of dopamine-induced cell death in cultured rat forebrain neurons: Interactions with and differences from glutamate-induced cell death. Exp Neurol 143:269–281.
  108. Hsu KS (1996) Characterization of dopamine receptors mediating inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat hippocampal slice. J Neurophysiol 76:1887–1895.
  109. Hsu KS, Huang CC, Yang CH, Gean PW (1995) Presynaptic D2 dopaminergic receptors mediate inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission in rat neostriatum. Brain Res 690:264–268.
  110. Hu XT, Wachtel SR, Galloway MP, White FJ (1990) Lesions of the nigrostriatal dopamine projection increase the inhibitory effects of D1 and D2 dopamine agonists on caudate-putamen neurons and relieve D2 receptors from the necessity of D1 receptor stimulation. J Neurosci 10:2318–2329.
  111. Hu XT, White FJ (1997) Dopamine enhances glutamate-induced excitation of rat striatal neurons by cooperative activation of D1 and D2 class receptors. Neurosci Lett 224:61–65.
  112. Huang YY, Kandel ER (1995) D1/D5 receptor agonists induce a protein synthesis-dependent late potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:2446–2450.
  113. Hull CD, Bernardi G, Buchwald NA (1970) Intracellular responses of caudate neurons to brain stem stimulation. Brain Res 22:163–179.
  114. Jaffe DB, Johnston D, Lasser-Ross N, Lisman JE, Miyakawa H, Ross WN (1992) The spread of Na+ spikes determines the pattern of dendritic Ca2+ entry into hippocampal neurons. Nature 357:244–246.
  115. Jiang ZG, North RA (1991) Membrane properties and synaptic responses of rat striatal neurones in vitro. J Physiol (Lond) 443:533–553.
  116. Joyce JN, Loeschen SK, Marshall JF (1985) Dopamine D-2 receptors in rat caudate-putamen: The lateral to medial gradient does not correspond to dopaminergic innervation. Brain Res 338:209–218.
  117. Joyce JN, Loeschen SK, Sapp DW, Marshall JF (1986) Age-related regional loss of caudate-putamen dopamine receptors revealed by quantitative autoradiography. Brain Res 378:158–163.
  118. Kelly AE, Delfs JM, Chu B (1990) Neurotoxicity induced by the D-1 agonist SKF 38393 following microinjection into rat brain. Brain Res 532:342–346.
  119. Kita H (1996) Glutamatergic and GABAergic postsynaptic responses of striatal spiny neurons to intrastriatal and cortical stimulation recorded in slice preparations. Neuroscience 70:925–940.
  120. Kitai ST, Sugimori M, Kocsis JD (1976) Excitatory nature of dopamine in the nigro-caudate pathway. Exp Brain Res 24:351–363.
  121. Kitai ST, Wagner A, Precht W, Ono T (1975) Nigro-caudate and caudato-nigral relationship: An electrophysiological study. Brain Res 85:44–48.
  122. Kiyatkin EA, Rebec GV (1996) Dopaminergic modulation of glutamate-induced excitations of neurons in the neostriatum and nucleus accumbens of awake, unrestrained rats. J Neurophysiol 75:142–153.
  123. Knapp AG, Schmidt KF, Dowling JE (1990) Dopamine modulates the kinetics of ion channels gated by excitatory amino acids in retinal horizontal cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:767–771.
  124. Koch C (1997) Computation and the single neuron. Nature 385:207–210.
  125. Konradi C, Leveque JC, Hyman SE (1996) Amphetamine and dopamine-induced immediate early gene expression in striatal neurons depends on postsynaptic NMDA receptors and calcium. J Neurosci 16:4231–4239.
  126. Kornhuber J, Kornhuber ME (1986) Presynaptic dopaminergic modulation of cortical input to the striatum. Life Sci 39:699–674.
  127. Kötter R (1994) Postsynaptic integration of glutamatergic and dopaminergic signals in the striatum. Prog Neurobiol 44:163–196.
  128. Kusuki T, Imahori Y, Ueda S, Inokuchi K (1997) Dopaminergic modulation of LTP induction in the dentate gyrus of intact brain. Neuroreport 8:2037–2040.
  129. La Hoste GJ, Ruskin DN, Marshall JF (1996) Cerebrocortical Fos expression following dopaminergic stimulation: D1/D2 synergism and its breakdown. Brain Res 728:97–104.
  130. La Hoste GJ, Yu J, Marshall JF (1993) Striatal Fos expression is indicative of dopamine D1/D2 synergism and receptor supersensitivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:7451–7455.
  131. Lange KW, Kornhuber J, Riederer P (1997) Dopamine/glutamate interactions in Parkinson’s disease. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 21:393–400.
  132. Lasater EM, Dowling JE (1982) Carp horizontal cells in culture respond selectively to L-glutamate and its agonists. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:936–940.
  133. Le Moine C, Bloch B (1995) D1 and D2 dopamine receptor gene expression in the rat striatum: Sensitive cRNA probes demonstrate prominent segregation of D1 and D2 mRNAs in distinct neuronal populations of the dorsal and ventral striatum. J Comp Neurol 355:418–426.
  134. Leonard AS, Hell JW (1997) Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C phosphorylate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors at different sites. J Biol Chem 272:12107–12115.
  135. Lester J, Fink S, Aronin N, Di Figlia M (1993) Colocalization of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor mRNAs in striatal neurons. Brain Res 621:106–110.
  136. Levine MS, Altemus KL, Cepeda C, Cromwell HC, Crawford C, Ariano MA, Drago J, Sibley DR, Westphal H (1996a) Modulatory actions of dopamine on NMDA receptor-mediated responses are reduced in D1A-deficient mutant mice. J Neurosci 16:5870–5882.
  137. Levine MS, De Fazio T, Espinosa de los Monteros A, DeVellis J (1997) Dopamine modulation of NMDA-induced calcium transients in fetal neocortical cultures and dissociated neostriatal neurons. Soc Neurosci Abstr 23:1192.
  138. Levine MS, Li Z, Cepeda C, Cromwell HC, Altemus KL (1996b) Neuromodulatory actions of dopamine on synaptically-evoked neostriatal responses in slices. Synapse 24:65–78.
  139. Liste I, Rozas G, Guerra MJ, Labandeira-Garcia JL (1995) Cortical stimulation induces Fos expression in striatal neurons via NMDA glutamate and dopamine receptors. Brain Res 700:1–12.
  140. Lovinger DM, Choi S (1995) Activation of adenosine A1 receptors initiates short-term synaptic depression in rat striatum. Neurosci Lett 199:9–12.
  141. Lovinger DM, Merritt A, Reyes D (1994) Involvement of N- and non-N-type calcium channels in synaptic transmission at corticostriatal synapses. Neuroscience 62:31–40.
  142. Lovinger DM, Tyler E (1996) Synaptic transmission and modulation in the neostriatum. Int Rev Neurobiol 39:77–111.
  143. Lovinger DM, Tyler Ec, Merritt A (1993) Short- and long-term synaptic depression in rat neostriatum. J Neurophysiol 70:1937–1949.
  144. Lukyanetz EA, Kostyuk PG (1996) Two distinct receptors operate the cAMP cascade to up-regulate L-type Ca2+ channels. Pflügers Arch 432:174–181.
  145. Magee JC, Avery RB, Christie BR, Johnston D (1996) Dihydropyridine-sensitive, voltage-gated Ca2+ channels contribute to the resting intracellular Ca2+ concentration of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. J Neurophysiol 76:3460–3470.
  146. Magee JC, Johnston D (1997) A synaptically controlled, associative signal for Hebbian plasticity in hippocampal neurons. Science 275:209–213.
  147. Mahan LC, Burch RM, Monsma FJ, Sibley DR (1990) Expression of striatal D1 dopamine receptors coupled to inositol phosphate production and Ca2+ mobilization in Xenopus oocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:2196–2200.
  148. Markram H, Segal M (1991) Calcimycin potentiates responses of rat hippocampal neurons to N-methyl-D-aspartate. Brain Res 540:322–324.
  149. Marshall JF, Berrios N (1979) Movement disorders of aged rats: Reversal by dopamine receptor stimulation. Science 206:477–479.
  150. Mayer ML, Westbrook GL, Guthrie PB (1984) Voltage-dependent block by Mg2+ of NMDA responses in spinal cord neurones. Nature 309:261–263.
  151. McLaughlin BA, Nelson D, Erecinska M, Chesselet MF (1997) Dopamine potentiates the toxicity of mitochondrial inhibition in vitro. Soc Neurosci Abstr 23:271.
  152. McLennan H, York DH (1967) The action of dopamine on neurones of the caudate nucleus. J Physiol (Lond) 189:393–402.
  153. Merchant KM, Dobie DJ, Dorsa DM (1993) Differential loss of dopamine D2 receptor mRNA isoforms during aging in Fischer-344 rats. Neurosci Lett 154:163–167.
  154. Mercuri N, Bernardi G, Calabresi P, Cotugno A, Levi G, Stanzione P (1985) Dopamine decreases cell excitability in rat striatal neurons by pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. Brain Res 358:110–121.
  155. Mesco ER, Carlson SG, Joseph JA, Roth GS (1993) Decreased striatal D2 dopamine receptor mRNA synthesis during aging. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 17:160–162.
  156. Mirenowicz J, Schultz W (1996) Preferential activation of midbrain dopamine neurons by appetitive rather than aversive stimuli. Nature 379:449–451.
  157. Mirenowicz J, Schultz W (1994) Importance of unpredictability for reward resonses in primate dopamine neurons. J Neurophysiol 72:1024–1027.
  158. Misgeld U, Dodt HU, Frotscher M (1986) Late development of intrinsic excitation in the rat neostriatum: An in vitro study. Brain Res 392:59–67.
  159. Mitchell PR, Doggett NS (1980) Modulation of striatal [3H]-glutamic acid release by dopaminergic drugs. Life Sci 26:2073–2081.
  160. Monaghan DT, Bridges RJ, Cotman CW (1989) The excitatory amino acid receptors: Their classes, pharmacology, and distinct properties in the function of the central nervous system. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 29:365–402.
  161. Monsma FJ, Mahan LC, McVittie LD, Gerfen CR, Sibley DR (1990) Molecular cloning and expression of a D1 dopamine receptor linked to adenylyl cyclase activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:6723–6727.
  162. Monsma FJ, McVittie LD, Gerfen CR, Mahan LC, Sibley DR (1989) Multiple D2 dopamine receptors produced by alternative RNA splicing. Nature 342:926–929.
  163. Morgan DG, Marcusson JO, Nyberg P, Wester P, Winblad B, Gordon MN, Finch CE (1987) Divergent changes in D-1 and D-2 dopamine binding sites in human brain during aging. Neurobiol Aging 8:195–201.
  164. Musleh W, Akopian G, Walsh JP (1997) Novel medial to lateral differences in the expression of short- and long-term synaptic plasticity in the rat striatum. Soc Neurosci Abstr 23:1281.
  165. Nestler EJ (1994) Hard target: Understanding dopaminergic neurotransmission. Cell 79:923–926.
  166. Nicoll RA (1988) The coupling of neurotransmitter receptors to ion channels in the brain. Science 241:545–551.
  167. Nisenbaum ES, Berger TW (1992) Functionally distinct subpopulations of striatal neurons are differentially regulated by GABAergic and dopaminergic inputs. I. In vivo analysis. Neuroscience 48:561–578.
  168. Nishi A, Snyder GL, Fienberg A, Allen P, Fisone G, Nairn AC, Aperia A, Greengard P (1996) Role of DARPP-32 in the regulation of Na+, K+-ATPase activity in striatal neurons. Soc Neurosci Abstr 22:380.
  169. Nishi A, Snyder GL, Greengard P (1997) Bidirectional control of DARPP-32 phosphorylation by dopamine. J Neurosci 17:8147–8155.
  170. Nocross K, Spehlmann R (1978) A quantitative analysis of the excitatory and depressant effects of dopamine on the firing of caudatal neurons: Electrophysiological support for the existence of two distinct dopamine-sensitive receptors. Brain Res 156:168–174.
  171. Nowak I, Bregestovski P, Ascher P, Herbet A, Prochiantz A (1984) Magnesium gates glutamate-activated channels in mouse central neurones. Nature 307:462–465.
  172. O’Malley KL, Harmon S, Tang L, Todd RD (1992) The rat dopamine D4 receptor: Sequence, gene structure, and demonstration of expression in the cardiovascular system. New Biol 4:137–146.
  173. Ohno Y, Sasa M, Takaori S (1987) Coexistence of inhibitory dopamine D-1 and excitatory D-2 receptors on the same caudate nucleus neurons. Life Sci 40:1937–1945.
  174. Otmakhova NA, Lisman JE (1996) D1/D5 dopamine receptor activation increases the magnitude of early long-term potentiation at CA1 hippocampal synapses. J Neurosci 16:7478–7486.
  175. Pfeiffer-Linn C, Lasater EM (1993) Dopamine modulates in a differential fashion T- and L-type calcium currents in bass retinal horizontal cells. J Gen Physiol 102:277–294.
  176. Pierce RC, Rebec GV (1995) Iontophoresis in the neostriatum of awake, unrestrained rats: Differential effects of dopamine, glutamate and ascorbate on motor- and nonmotor-related neurons. Neuroscience 67:313–324.
  177. Pisani A, Calabresi P, Centonze D, Bernardi G (1997) Enhancement of NMDA responses by group I metabotropic glutamate receptor activation in striatal neurones. Br J Pharmacol 120:1007–1014.
  178. Reader TA, Ferron A, Descarries L, Jasper HH (1979) Modulatory role for biogenic amines in the cerebral cortex. Microiontophoretic studies. Brain Res 160:217–229.
  179. Rolls ET (1994) Neurophysiology and cognitive functions of the striatum. Rev Neurol (Paris) 150:648–660.
  180. Rowlands GF, Roberts PJ (1980) Activation of dopamine receptors inhibits calcium-dependent glutamate release from cortico-striatal terminals in vitro. Eur J Pharmacol 62:241–242.
  181. Rutherford A, Garcia-Muñoz M, Arbuthnott GW (1988) An afterhyperpolarization recorded in striatal ‘in vitro’: Effect of dopamine administration. Exp Brain Res 71:399–405.
  182. Schambra UB, Duncan GE, Breese GR, Fornaretto MG, Caron MG, Fremeau RT Jr (1994) Ontogeny of D1A and D2 dopamine receptor subtypes in rat brain using in situ hybridization and receptor binding. Neuroscience 62:65–85.
  183. Schiffmann SN, Lledo PM, Vincent JD (1995) Dopamine D1 receptor modulates the voltage-gated sodium current in rat striatal neurones through a protein kinase A. J Physiol (Lond) 483:95–107.
  184. Schultz W (1997) Dopamine neurons and their role in reward mechanisms. Curr Opin Neurobiol 7:191–197.
  185. Schultz W, Dayan P, Montague PR (1997) A neural substrate of prediction and reward. Science 275:1593–1599.
  186. Schwanstecher C, Panten U (1994) Identification of an ATP-sensitive K+ channel in spiny neurons of rat caudate nucleus. Pflügers Arch 427:187–189.
  187. Shingai R, Christensen BN (1986) Excitable properties and voltage-sensitive ion conductances of horizontal cells isolated from catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) retina. J Neurophysiol 56:32–49.
  188. Sibley DR, Monsma FJ (1992) Molecular biology of dopamine receptors. Trends Pharmacol Sci 13:61–69.
  189. Siggins GR (1978) Electrophysiological role of dopamine in striatum: Excitatory or inhibitory? In Lipton MA, DiMasco A, Killam KF (eds): Psychopharmacology: A Generation of Progress. New York, Raven Press, pp 143–157.
  190. Smart TG (1997) Regulation of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter-gated ion channels by protein phosphorylation. Curr Opin Neurobiol 7:358–367.
  191. Smith AD, Bolam JP (1990) The neural network of the basal ganglia as revealed by the study of synaptic connections of identified neurones. Trends Neurosci 13:259–265.
  192. Snyder G, Fienberg A, Dulubova I, Nairn AC, Greengard P (1996) Dopamine-mediated phosphorylation of NMDA-R1 in the rat nucleus accumbens. Soc Neurosci Abstr 22:380.
  193. Song WJ, Surmeier DJ (1996) Voltage-dependent facilitation of calcium channels in rat neostriatal neurons. J Neurophysiol 76:2290–2306.
  194. Spencer HJ, Havlicek V (1974) Alterations by anesthetic agents of the responses of rat striatal neurons to iontophoretically applied amphetamine, acetylcholine, noradrenaline, and dopamine. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 52:808–813.
  195. Standaert DG, Testa CM, Young AB, Penney JB (1994) Organization of N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor gene expression in the basal ganglia of the rat. J Comp Neurol 343:1–16.
  196. Starr MS (1995) Glutamate/dopamine D1/D2 balance in the basal ganglia and its relevance to Parkinson’s disease. Synapse 19:264–293.
  197. Stoof JC, Kebabian JW (1981) Opposing roles for D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptors in efflux of cyclic AMP from rat neostriatum. Nature 294:366–368.
  198. Stuart G, Sakmann B (1995) Amplification of EPSPs by axosomatic sodium channels in neocortical pyramidal neurons. Neuron 15:1065–1076.
  199. Stuart GJ, Sakmann B (1994) Active propagation of somatic action potentials into neocortical pyramidal cell dendrites. Nature 467:69–72.
  200. Sullivan JM, Lasater EM (1990) An unusually small potassium current that is well-suited to a retinal neuron which is chronically depolarized. Brain Res 528:130–132.
  201. Surmeier DJ, Bargas J, Hemmings HC, Nairn AC, Greengard P (1995) Modulation of calcium currents by a D1 dopaminergic protein kinase/phosphatase cascade in rat neostriatal neurons. Neuron 14:385–397.
  202. Surmeier DJ, Eberwine J, Wilson CJ, Cao Y, Stefani A, Kitai ST (1992) Dopamine receptor subtypes colocalize in rat striatonigral neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:10178–10182.
  203. Surmeier DJ, Kitai ST (1993) D1 and D2 dopamine receptor modulation of sodium and potassium currents in rat neostriatal neurons. Prog Brain Res 99:309–324.
  204. Surmeier DJ, Reiner A, Levine MS, Ariano MA (1993) Are neostriatal dopamine receptors colocalized? Trends Neurosci 16:299–305.
  205. Surmeier DJ, Song WJ, Yan Z (1996) Coordinated expression of dopamine receptors in neostriatal medium spiny neurons. J Neurosci 16:6579–6591.
  206. Szele FG, Artymyshyn R, Molinoff PB, Chesselet MF (1991) Heterogeneous distribution of dopamine D2 receptor mRNA in the rat striatum: A quantitative analysis with in situ hybridization histochemistry. Anat Rec 231:548–558.
  207. Tallaksen-Greene SJ, Wiley RG, Albin RL (1992) Localization of striatal excitatory amino acid binding site subtypes to striatonigral projection neurons. Brain Res 594:165–170.
  208. Trulson ME, Atasteh K (1986) Effects of dopamine and amphetamine on mouse caudate neurons recorded in vitro. Eur J Pharmacol 124:161–165.
  209. Vincent SL, Khan Y, Benes FM (1993) Cellular distribution of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in rat medial prefrontal cortex. J Neurosci 13:2551–2564.
  210. Walsh JP (1991) Long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synaptic input to medium spiny neurons of the rat striatum. Soc Neurosci Abstr 17:852.
  211. Walsh JP (1993) Depression of excitatory synaptic input in rat striatal neurons. Brain Res 608:123–128.
  212. Walsh JP, Dunia R (1993) Synaptic activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors induces short-term potentiation at excitatory synapses in the striatum of the rat. Neuroscience 57:241–248.
  213. Watkins JC, Krogsgaard-Larsen P, Honore T (1990) Structure-activity relationships in the development of excitatory amino acid receptor agonists and competitive antagonists. Trends Pharmacol Sci 11:25–33.
  214. Wickens JR, Begg AJ, Arbuthnott GW (1996) Dopamine reverses the depression of rat corticostriatal synapses which normally follows high-frequency stimulation of cortex in vitro. Neuroscience 70:1–5.
  215. Wickens JR, Reynolds JNJ (1997) Synaptic plasticity in the rat neostriatum in vivo. Soc Neurosci Abstr 23:1281.
  216. Williams PJ, MacVicar BA, Pittman QJ (1990) Synaptic modulation by dopamine of calcium currents in rat pars intermedia. J Neurosci 10:757–763.
  217. Wilson CJ (1990) Basal ganglia; in Shepard GM (ed): The synaptic organization of the brain. New York, Oxford University Press, pp 279–316.
  218. Wilson CJ, Kawaguchi Y (1996) The origins of two-state spontaneous membrane potential fluctuations of neostriatal spiny neurons. J Neurosci 16:2397–2410.
  219. Yamamoto BK, Davy S (1992) Dopaminergic modulation of glutamate release in striatum as measured by microdialysis. J Neurochem 58:1736–1742.
  220. York DH (1967) The inhibitory action of dopamine on neurones of the caudate nucleus. Brain Res 5:263–266.
  221. Yung KK, Bolam JP, Smith AD, Hersch SM, Ciliax BJ, Levey AI (1995) Immunocytochemical localization of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia of the rat: Light and electron microscopy. Neuroscience 65:709–730.
  222. Zador A, Koch C, Brown TH (1990) Biophysical model of a Hebbian synapse. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:6718–6722.
  223. 1Akaike A, Ohno Y, Sasa M, Takaori S (1987) Excitatory and inhibitory effects of dopamine on neuronal activity of the caudate nucleus neurons in vitro. Brain Res 418:262–272.
  224. 2Albin RL, Makowiec RL, Hollingsworth ZR, Dure LS, Penney JB, Young AB (1992) Excitatory amino acid binding sites in the basal ganglia of the rat: A quantitative autoradiographic study. Neuroscience 46:35–48.
  225. 3Altemus KL, Levine MS (1996) Potassium channel blockade does not alter the modulatory effects of dopamine in neostriatal slices. Brain Res 718:212–216.

 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Michael S. Levine, PhD
Mental Retardation Research Center
760 Westwood Plaza, University of California, Los Angeles
Los Angeles, CA 90024–1759
Tel. +1 (310) 825 7595, Fax +1 (310) 206 5060, E-Mail mlevine@mednet.ucla.edu


 goto top of outline Article Information

Received: Received: November 21, 1997
Accepted: December 4, 1997
Number of Print Pages : 18
Number of Figures : 0, Number of Tables : 0, Number of References : 222


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Developmental Neuroscience

Vol. 20, No. 1, Year 1998 (Cover Date: January-February 1998)

Journal Editor: A.T. Campagnoni, Los Angeles, Calif.
ISSN: 0378–5866 (print), 1421–9859 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/journals/dne


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Abstract

This review examines dopamine (DA) and glutamate receptor interactions in the neostriatum (NS) primarily from a neurophysiological perspective. Historically, a clear understanding of the function of DA in the NS has been difficult because it was considered a classical neurotransmitter with either excitatory or inhibitory actions and because many of the data were obtained by use of varying methodologies. When DA is considered a neuromodulator whose role is to alter how NS cells respond to glutamatergic inputs, many of its actions can be accounted for and predicted with great accuracy within a model of receptor subtype. In this model, DA via activation of D1 receptors potentiates responses mediated by activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. DA via activation of D2 receptors attenuates responses mediated by activation of non-NMDA receptors. Outcomes of combinations of NMDA and D2 and non-NMDA and D1 receptors are not as predictable. The mechanisms underlying the D1-NMDA receptor interactions appear to involve alterations in cell excitability mediated by activation of Ca2+ conductances and/or phosphorylation of NMDA receptors. Less is known about mechanisms underlying the D2-non-NMDA receptor interaction. The functional implications of this model in setting membrane potentials, signal-to-noise ratio, plasticity and excitotoxicity are discussed.



 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Michael S. Levine, PhD
Mental Retardation Research Center
760 Westwood Plaza, University of California, Los Angeles
Los Angeles, CA 90024–1759
Tel. +1 (310) 825 7595, Fax +1 (310) 206 5060, E-Mail mlevine@mednet.ucla.edu


 goto top of outline Article Information

Received: Received: November 21, 1997
Accepted: December 4, 1997
Number of Print Pages : 18
Number of Figures : 0, Number of Tables : 0, Number of References : 222


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Developmental Neuroscience

Vol. 20, No. 1, Year 1998 (Cover Date: January-February 1998)

Journal Editor: A.T. Campagnoni, Los Angeles, Calif.
ISSN: 0378–5866 (print), 1421–9859 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/journals/dne


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Akaike A, Ohno Y, Sasa M, Takaori S (1987) Excitatory and inhibitory effects of dopamine on neuronal activity of the caudate nucleus neurons in vitro. Brain Res 418:262–272.
  2. Albin RL, Makowiec RL, Hollingsworth ZR, Dure LS, Penney JB, Young AB (1992) Excitatory amino acid binding sites in the basal ganglia of the rat: A quantitative autoradiographic study. Neuroscience 46:35–48.
  3. Altemus KL, Levine MS (1996) Potassium channel blockade does not alter the modulatory effects of dopamine in neostriatal slices. Brain Res 718:212–216.
  4. Altemus KL, Zhang M, Yu Q, Watson IB, Drago I, Sibley DR, Levine MS (1997) Long-term plasticity in the dopamine D1A-receptor deficient mutant mouse. Soc Neurosci Abstr 23:189.
  5. Arbuthnott GW, Wickens JR (1996) Dopamine cells are neurones too! Trends Neurosci 19:279–280.
  6. Ariano MA, Larson ER, Noblett KL, Sibley DR, Levine MS (1997) Coexpression of striatal dopamine receptor subtypes and excitatory amino acid subunits. Synapse 26:400–414.
  7. Ariano MA, Stromski CJ, Smyk-Randall EM, Sibley DR (1992) D2 dopamine receptor localization on striatonigral neurons. Neurosci Lett 144:215–220.
  8. Armstrong CM, Gilly WF (1992) Access resistance and space clamp problems associated with whole-cell patch clamping. Methods Enzymol 207:100–122.
  9. Artalejo CR, Ariano MA, Perlman RL, Fox AP (1990) Activation of facilitation calcium channels in chromaffin cells by D1 dopamine receptors through a cAMP/protein kinase A-dependent mechanism. Nature 348:239–242.
  10. Artola A, Brocher S, Singer W (1990) Different voltage-dependent thresholds for inducing long-term depression and long-term potentiation in slices of rat visual cortex. Nature 347:69–72.
  11. Artola A, Singer W (1993) Long-term depression of excitatory synaptic transmission and its relationship to long-term potentiation. Trends Neurosci 16:480–487.
  12. Bargas J, Galarraga E, Aceves J (1988) Electrotonic properties of neostriatal neurons are modulated by extracellular potassium. Exp Brain Res 72:390–398.
  13. Bargas J, Howe A, Eberwine J, Cao Y, Surmeier DJ (1994) Cellular and molecular characterization of Ca2+ currents in acutely isolated, adult rat neostriatal neurons. J Neurosci 14:6667–6686.
  14. Beal MF, Hyman BT, Koroshetz W (1993) Do defects in mitochondrial energy metabolism underlie the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases? Trends Neurosci 16:125–131.
  15. Ben-Shachar D, Zuk R, Glinka Y (1995) Dopamine neurotoxicity: Inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. J Neurochem 64:718–723.
  16. Bergmann-Erb D, Engberg I, ten Bruggencate G (1988) Biogenic amines facilitate N-methyl-DL-aspartate responses in the guinea-pig neocortex in vitro. Pflügers Arch Suppl 411:R127.
  17. Bergson C, Mrzljak L, Smiley JF, Pappy M, Levenson R, Goldman-Rakic PS (1995) Regional, cellular, and subcellular variations in the distribution of D1 and D5 dopamine receptors in primate brain. J Neurosci 15:7821–7836.
  18. Bernardi G, Marciani MG, Morocutti C, Pavone F, Stanzione P (1978) The action of dopamine on rat caudate neurones intracellularly recorded. Neurosci Lett 8:235–240.
  19. Bertorello AM, Hopfield JF, Aperia A, Greengard P (1990) Inhibition by dopamine of (Na(+)+K+)ATPase activity in neostriatal neurons through D1 and D2 dopamine receptor synergism. Nature 347:386–388.
  20. Bevan P, Bradshaw CM, Szabadi E (1975) Effects of desipramine on neuronal responses to dopamine, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine and acetylcholine in the caudate nucleus of the rat. Br J Pharmacol 54:285–293.
  21. Blank T, Nijholt I, Behrsing H, Spiess J (1996) Modulation of NMDA-receptor function in the rat striatum-interplay of kinases and phosphatases. Soc Neurosci Abstr 22:380.
  22. Blank T, Nijholt I, Teichert U, Kugler H, Spiess J (1997) PKA-dependent modulation of NMDA responses: Putative role of the phosphoprotein DARPP-32. Soc Neurosci Abstr 23:707.
  23. Bloom FE, Costa E, Salmoiraghi GC (1965) Anesthesia and the responsiveness of individual neurons of the caudate nucleus of the cat to acetylcholine, norepinephrine and dopamine administered by microelectrophoresis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 150:244–252.
  24. Brown JR, Arbuthnott GW (1983) The electrophysiology of dopamine (D2) receptors: A study of the actions of dopamine on corticostriatal transmission. Neuroscience 10:349–355.
  25. Brown NA, Seabrook GR (1995) Phosphorylation- and voltage-dependent inhibition of neuronal calcium currents by activation of human D2(short) dopamine receptors. Br J Pharmacol 115:459–466.
  26. Buchwald NA, Altemus KL, Cepeda C, Levine MS (1997) Cholinergic modulation of neostriatal synaptic responses mediated by activation of glutamate receptors. Soc Neurosci Abstr 23:189.
  27. Buisson A, Pateau V, Plotkine M, Boulu RG (1991) Nigrostriatal pathway modulates striatum vulnerability to quinolinic acid. Neurosci Lett 131:257–259.
  28. Bunzow JR, Van Van Tol HH, Grandy DK, Albert P, Salon J, Christie M, Machida CA, Neve KA, Civelli O (1988) Cloning and expression of a rat D2 dopamine receptor cDNA. Nature 336:783–787.
  29. Calabresi P, Benedetti M, Mercuri NB, Bernardi G (1988) Endogenous dopamine and dopaminergic agonists modulate synaptic excitation in neostriatum: Intracellular studies from naive and catecholamine-depleted rats. Neuroscience 27:145–157.
  30. Calabresi P, Centonze D, Pisani A, Gubellini P, Marfia G, Bernardi G (1997a) Endogenous acetylcholine increases NMDA responses recorded from striatal spiny neurons. Soc Neurosci Abstr 23:2022.
  31. Calabresi P, De Murtas M, Pisani A, Stefani A, Sancesario G, Mercuri NB, Bernardi G (1995a) Vulnerability of medium spiny striatal neurons to glutamate: Role of Na+/K+ ATPase. Eur J Neurosci 7:1674–1683.
  32. Calabresi P, Fedele E, Pisani A, Fontana G, Mercuri NB, Bernardi G, Raiteri M (1995b) Transmitter release associated with long-term synaptic depression in rat corticostriatal slices. Eur J Neurosci 7:1889–1894.
  33. Calabresi P, Maj R, Pisani A, Mercuri NB, Bernardi G (1992) Long-term synaptic depression in the striatum: Physiological and pharmacological characterization. J Neurosci 12:4424–4233.
  34. Calabresi P, Mercuri N, Stanzioni P, Stefani A, Bernardi G (1987a) Intracellular studies on the dopamine-induced firing inhibition of neostriatal neurons in vitro: Evidence for D1 receptor involvement. Neuroscience 20:757–771.
  35. Calabresi P, Mercuri NB, Stefani A, Bernardi G (1990) Synaptic and intrinsic control of membrane excitability of neostriatal neurons. I. An in vivo analysis. J Neurophysiol 63:651–662.
  36. Calabresi P, Misgeld U, Dodt HU (1987b) Intrinsic membrane properties of neostriatal neurons can account for their low level of spontaneous activity. Neuroscience 20:293–303.
  37. Calabresi P, Pisani A, Centonze D, Bernardi G (1997b) Synaptic plasticity and physiological interactions between dopamine and glutamate in the striatum. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 21:519–523.
  38. Calabresi P, Pisani A, Mercuri NB, Bernardi G (1996) The corticostriatal projection: From synaptic plasticity to dysfunctions of the basal ganglia. Trends Neurosci 19:19–24.
  39. Calabresi P, Pisani A, Mercuri NB, Bernardi G (1994) Post-receptor mechanisms underlying striatal long-term depression. J Neurosci 14:4871–4881.
  40. Calabresi P, Saiardi A, Pisani A, Baik JH, Centonze D, Mercuri NB, Bernardi G, Borrelli E (1997c) Abnormal synaptic plasticity in the striatum of mice lacking dopamine D2 receptors. J Neurosci 17:4536–4544.
  41. Cameron DL, Williams JT (1993) Dopamine D1 receptors facilitate transmitter release. Nature 336:344–347.
  42. Carlsson M, Carlsson A (1990) Interactions between glutamatergic and monoaminergic systems within the basal ganglia-implications for schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease. Trends Neurosci 13:272–276.
  43. Cepeda C, Buchwald NA, Levine MS (1993) Neuromodulatory actions of dopamine in the neostriatum are dependent upon the excitatory amino acid receptor subtypes activated. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:9576–9580.
  44. Cepeda C, Chandler SH, Shumate LW, Levine MS (1995a) Persistent Na+ conductance in medium-sized neostriatal neurons: Characterization using infrared videomicroscopy and whole cell patch-clamp recordings. J Neurophysiol 74:1343–1348.
  45. Cepeda C, Colwell CS, Itri JN, Chandler SH, Levine MS (1998) Dopaminergic modulation of NMDA-induced whole-cell currents in neostriatal neurons in slice: Contribution of calcium conductances. J Neurophysiol 79:82–94.
  46. Cepeda C, Li Z, Levine MS (1996a) Aging reduces neostriatal responsiveness to N-methyl-D-aspartate and dopamine: An in vitro electrophysiological study. Neuroscience 73:733–750.
  47. Cepeda C, Peacook W, Levine MS, Buchwald NA (1991) Iontophoretic application of NMDA produces different types of excitatory responses in developing human cortical and caudate neurons. Neurosci Lett 126:167–171.
  48. Cepeda C, Radisavljevic Z, Peacock W, Levine MS, Buchwald NA (1992) Differential modulation by dopamine of responses evoked by excitatory amino acids in human cortex. Synapse 11:330–341.
  49. Cepeda C, Shumate L, Colwell CS, Levine MS (1996b) NMDA-receptor development in neostriatum: II. Whole-cell voltage clamp analysis of currents in visually identified cells. Soc Neurosci Abstr 22:408.
  50. Cepeda C, Walsh JP, Hull CD, Buchwald NA, Levine MS (1989) Intracellular neurophysiological analysis reveals alterations in excitation in striatal neurons in aged rats. Brain Res 494:215–226.
  51. Cepeda C, Walsh JP, Peacock W, Buchwald NA, Levine MS (1994) Neurophysiological, pharmacological and morphological properties of human caudate neurons recorded in vitro. Neuroscience 59:89–103.
  52. Cepeda C, Yu Q, Colwell CS, Buchwald NA, Levine MS (1995b) NMDA-induced excitotoxicity in visually identified neostriatal neurons in slices. Modulation by dopamine. Soc Neurosci Abstr 21:912.
  53. Chapman AG, Durmuller N, Lees GJ, Meldrum BS (1989) Excitotoxicity of NMDA and kainic acid is modulated by nigrostriatal dopaminergic fibres. Neurosci Lett 107:256–260.
  54. Charpier S, Deniau JM (1997) In vivo activity-dependent plasticity at cortco-striatal connections. Evidence for physiological long-term potentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:7036–7040.
  55. Cheramy A, Romo R, Godeheu G, Baruch P, Glowinski J (1986) In vivo presynaptic control of dopamine release in the cat caudate nucleus. II. Facilitatory or inhibitory influence of L-glutamate. Neuroscience 19:1081–1090.
  56. Cherubini E, Herrling PL, Lanfumey L, Stanzione P (1988) Excitatory amino acids in synaptic excitation of rat striatal neurones in vitro. J Physiol (Lond) 400:677–690.
  57. Cherubini E, Lanfumey L (1987a) A ouabain-sensitive hyperpolarization in rat striatal neurones in vitro. Neurosci Lett 78:338–342.
  58. Cherubini E, Lanfumey L (1987b) An inward calcium current underlying regenerative calcium potentials in rat striatal neurons in vitro enhanced by Bay K 8644. Neuroscience 21:997–1005.
  59. Chesselet MF, Delfs JM (1996) Basal ganglia and movement disorders: An update. Trends Neurosci 19:417–422.
  60. Chiodo LA, Berger TW (1986) Interactions between dopamine and amino acid-induced excitation and inhibition in the striatum. Brain Res 375:198–203.
  61. Choi S, Lovinger DM (1997) Decreased probability of neurotransmitter release underlies striatal long-term depression and postnatal development of corticostriatal synapses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:2665–2670.
  62. Civelli O, Bunzow JR, Grandy DK (1993) Molecular diversity of the dopamine receptors. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 33:281–307.
  63. Colwell CS, Altemus KL, Cepeda C, Levine MS (1996) Regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced toxicity in the neostriatum: A role for metabotropic glutamate receptors? Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:1200–1204.
  64. Colwell CS, Levine MS (1995) Excitatory synaptic transmission in neostriatal neurons: Regulation by cyclic AMP-dependent mechanisms. J Neurosci 15:1704–1713.
  65. Colwell CS, Levine MS (1996) Glutamate receptor-induced toxicity in neostriatal cells. Brain Res 724:205–212.
  66. Cowan RL, Wilson CJ (1994) Spontaneous firing patterns and axonal projections of single corticostriatal neurons in the rat medial agranular cortex. J Neurophysiol 71:17–32.
  67. Das S, Grunert M, Williams L, Vincent SR (1997) NMDA and D1 receptors regulate the phosphorylation of CREB and the induction of c-fos in striatal neurons in primary culture. Synapse 25:227–233.
  68. De Fazio T, Walsh JP (1995) Differential ontogeny of calcium currents in the rat nigrostriatal system. Soc Neurosci Abstr 25:1577.
  69. Di Chiara G, Morelli M, Consolo S (1994) Modulatory functions of neurotransmitters in the striatum: ACh/dopamine/NMDA interactions. Trends Neurosci 17:228–233.
  70. Di Figlia M (1990) Excitotoxic injury of the neostriatum: A Model for Huntington’s disease. Trends Neurosci 13:286–289.
  71. Dodt HU, Hager G, Zieglgänsberger W (1993) Direct observation of neurotoxicity in brain slices with infrared videomicroscopy. J Neurosci Methods 50:165–171.
  72. Dolphin AC (1996) Facilitation of Ca2+ current in excitable cells. Trends Neurosci 19:35–43.
  73. Eilers J, Konnerth A (1997) Dendritic signal integration. Curr Opin Neurobiol 7:385–390.
  74. Ewald DA, Levitan IB (1987) Ion channels regulated by calcium; in Kaczmarek LK, Levitan IB (eds): Neuromodulation. New York, Oxford University Press, pp 138–158.
  75. Ferroni A, Galli A, Mazzanti M (1996) Functional role of low-voltage-activated dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca2+ channels during the action potential in adult rat sensory neurones. Pflügers Arch 431:954–963.
  76. Filloux F, Wamsley JK (1991) Dopaminergic modulation of excitotoxicity in rat striatum: Evidence from nigrostriatal lesions. Synapse 8:281–288.
  77. Flores-Hernández J, Galarraga E, Bargas J (1994) Dopamine selects glutamatergic inputs to neostriatal neurons. Synapse 25:185–195.
  78. Fraser DD, MacVicar BA (1994) Dopamine modulates NMDA-activated currents in striatal and cortical neurons. Soc Neurosci Abstr 20:481.
  79. Freedman JE, Weight FF (1988) Single K+ channels activated by D2 dopamine receptors in acutely dissociated neurons from rat corpus striatum. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:3618–3622.
  80. Freund TF, Powell JF, Smith AD (1984) Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive boutons in synaptic contact with identified striatonigral neurons, with particular reference to dendritic spines. Neuroscience 13:1189–1215.
  81. Galarraga E, Hernández-Lopez S, Reyes A, Barral J, Bargas J (1997) Dopamine facilitates striatal EPSPs through an L-type Ca2+ conductance. Neuroreport 8:2183–2186.
  82. Garcia-Muñoz M, Young SJ, Groves PM (1991) Terminal excitability of the corticostriatal pathway. I. Regulation by dopamine receptor stimulation. Brain Res 551:195–206.
  83. Gelbard HA, Teicher MH, Faedda G, Baldessarini RJ (1989) Postnatal development of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor sites in rat striatum. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 49:123–130.
  84. Gerfen CR, Engber TM, Mahan LC, Susel Z, Chase TN, Monsma FJ, Sibley DR (1990) D1 and D2 dopamine receptor-regulated gene expression of striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons. Science 250:1429–1432.
  85. Girault JA, Spampinato U, Glowinski J, Besson MJ (1986) In vivo release of [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid in the rat neostriatum. II. Opposing effects of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor stimulation in the dorsal caudate putamen. Neuroscience 19:1109–1117.
  86. Globus MY, Busto R, Dietrich WD, Martinez E, Valdes I, Ginsberg MD (1988) Intra-ischemic extracellular release of dopamine and glutamate is associated with striatal vulnerability to ischemia. Neurosci Lett 91:36–40.
  87. Globus MY, Ginsberg MD, Dietrich WD, Busto R, Scheinberg P (1987) Substantia nigra lesion protects against ischemic damage in the striatum. Neurosci Lett 80:251–256.
  88. Gonon F (1997) Prolonged and extrasynaptic excitatory action of dopamine mediated by D1 receptors in the rat striatum in vivo. J Neurosci 17:5972–5978.
  89. Gonon F, Sundstrom L (1996) Excitatory effects of dopamine released by impulse flow in the rat nucleus accumbens in vivo. Neuroscience 75:13–18.
  90. Grace AA (1991) Phasic versus tonic dopamine release and the modulation of dopamine system responsivity: A hypothesis for the etiology of schizophrenia. Neuroscience 41:1–24.
  91. Grace AA, Bunney BS (1984) The control of firing pattern in nigral dopamine neurons: Burst firing. J Neurosci 4:2877–2890.
  92. Graybiel AM (1995) The basal ganglia. Trends Neurosci 18:60–62.
  93. Greenamyre JT (1993) Glutamate-dopamine interactions in the basal ganglia: Relationship to Parkinson’s disease. J Neural Transm Gen Sect 91:225–269.
  94. Greengard P, Jen J, Nairn AC, Stevens CF (1991) Enhancement of the glutamate response by cAMP-dependent protein kinase in hippocampal neurons. Science 253:1135–1138.
  95. Greif GJ, Lin YJ, Liu JC, Freedman JE (1995) Dopamine-modulated potassium channels on rat striatal neurons: Specific activation and cellular expression. J Neurosci 15:4533–4544.
  96. Harvey J, Lacey MG (1997) A postsynaptic interaction between dopamine D1 and NMDA receptors promotes presynaptic inhibition in the rat nucleus accumbens via adenosine release. J Neurosci 17:5271–5280.
  97. Hastings TG, Zigmond MJ (1997) Loss of dopaminergic neurons in parkinsonism: Possible role of reactive dopamine metabolites. J Neural Transm Suppl 49:103–110.
  98. Hernández-Lopez S, Bargas J, Surmeier DJ, Reyes A, Galarraga E (1997) D1 receptor activation enhances evoked discharge in striatal medium spiny neurons by modulating an L-type Ca2+ conductance. J Neurosci 17:3334–3342.
  99. Herrling PL (1985) Pharmacology of the corticocaudate excitatory postsynpatic potential in the cat: Evidence for its mediation by quisqualate- or kainate receptors. Neuroscience 14:417–426.
  100. Herrling PL, Hull CD (1980) Iontophoretically applied dopamine depolarizes and hyperpolarizes the membrane of cat caudate neurons. Brain Res 192;441–462.
  101. Herrling PL, Morris R, Salt TE (1983) Effects of excitatory amino acids and their antagonists on membrane and action potentials of cat caudate neurones. J Physiol (Lond) 339:207–222.
  102. Hersch SM, Ciliax BJ, Gutekunst CA, Rees HD, Heilman CJ, Yung KK, Bolam JP, Ince E, Yi H, Levey AI (1995) Electron microscopic analysis of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor proteins in the dorsal striatum and their synaptic relationships with motor corticostriatal afferents. J Neurosci 15:5222–5237.
  103. Hertz A, Zieglgänsberger W (1968) The influence of microelectrophoretically applied biogenic amines, cholinomimetics and procaine on synaptic excitation in the corpus striatum. Int J Neuropharmacol 7:221–230.
  104. Hirata K, Yim CY, Mogenson GJ (1984) Excitatory input from sensory motor cortex to neostriatum and its modification by conditioning stimulation of the substantia nigra. Brain Res 321:1–8.
  105. Hoehn K, Watson TW, MacVicar BA (1993) Multiple types of calcium channels in acutely isolated rat neostriatal neurons. J Neurosci 13:1244–1257.
  106. Hollmann M, Heinemann S (1994) Cloned glutamate receptors. Annu Rev Neurosci 17:31–108.
  107. Hoyt KR, Reynolds IJ, Hastings TG (1997) Mechanisms of dopamine-induced cell death in cultured rat forebrain neurons: Interactions with and differences from glutamate-induced cell death. Exp Neurol 143:269–281.
  108. Hsu KS (1996) Characterization of dopamine receptors mediating inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat hippocampal slice. J Neurophysiol 76:1887–1895.
  109. Hsu KS, Huang CC, Yang CH, Gean PW (1995) Presynaptic D2 dopaminergic receptors mediate inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission in rat neostriatum. Brain Res 690:264–268.
  110. Hu XT, Wachtel SR, Galloway MP, White FJ (1990) Lesions of the nigrostriatal dopamine projection increase the inhibitory effects of D1 and D2 dopamine agonists on caudate-putamen neurons and relieve D2 receptors from the necessity of D1 receptor stimulation. J Neurosci 10:2318–2329.
  111. Hu XT, White FJ (1997) Dopamine enhances glutamate-induced excitation of rat striatal neurons by cooperative activation of D1 and D2 class receptors. Neurosci Lett 224:61–65.
  112. Huang YY, Kandel ER (1995) D1/D5 receptor agonists induce a protein synthesis-dependent late potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:2446–2450.
  113. Hull CD, Bernardi G, Buchwald NA (1970) Intracellular responses of caudate neurons to brain stem stimulation. Brain Res 22:163–179.
  114. Jaffe DB, Johnston D, Lasser-Ross N, Lisman JE, Miyakawa H, Ross WN (1992) The spread of Na+ spikes determines the pattern of dendritic Ca2+ entry into hippocampal neurons. Nature 357:244–246.
  115. Jiang ZG, North RA (1991) Membrane properties and synaptic responses of rat striatal neurones in vitro. J Physiol (Lond) 443:533–553.
  116. Joyce JN, Loeschen SK, Marshall JF (1985) Dopamine D-2 receptors in rat caudate-putamen: The lateral to medial gradient does not correspond to dopaminergic innervation. Brain Res 338:209–218.
  117. Joyce JN, Loeschen SK, Sapp DW, Marshall JF (1986) Age-related regional loss of caudate-putamen dopamine receptors revealed by quantitative autoradiography. Brain Res 378:158–163.
  118. Kelly AE, Delfs JM, Chu B (1990) Neurotoxicity induced by the D-1 agonist SKF 38393 following microinjection into rat brain. Brain Res 532:342–346.
  119. Kita H (1996) Glutamatergic and GABAergic postsynaptic responses of striatal spiny neurons to intrastriatal and cortical stimulation recorded in slice preparations. Neuroscience 70:925–940.
  120. Kitai ST, Sugimori M, Kocsis JD (1976) Excitatory nature of dopamine in the nigro-caudate pathway. Exp Brain Res 24:351–363.
  121. Kitai ST, Wagner A, Precht W, Ono T (1975) Nigro-caudate and caudato-nigral relationship: An electrophysiological study. Brain Res 85:44–48.
  122. Kiyatkin EA, Rebec GV (1996) Dopaminergic modulation of glutamate-induced excitations of neurons in the neostriatum and nucleus accumbens of awake, unrestrained rats. J Neurophysiol 75:142–153.
  123. Knapp AG, Schmidt KF, Dowling JE (1990) Dopamine modulates the kinetics of ion channels gated by excitatory amino acids in retinal horizontal cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:767–771.
  124. Koch C (1997) Computation and the single neuron. Nature 385:207–210.
  125. Konradi C, Leveque JC, Hyman SE (1996) Amphetamine and dopamine-induced immediate early gene expression in striatal neurons depends on postsynaptic NMDA receptors and calcium. J Neurosci 16:4231–4239.
  126. Kornhuber J, Kornhuber ME (1986) Presynaptic dopaminergic modulation of cortical input to the striatum. Life Sci 39:699–674.
  127. Kötter R (1994) Postsynaptic integration of glutamatergic and dopaminergic signals in the striatum. Prog Neurobiol 44:163–196.
  128. Kusuki T, Imahori Y, Ueda S, Inokuchi K (1997) Dopaminergic modulation of LTP induction in the dentate gyrus of intact brain. Neuroreport 8:2037–2040.
  129. La Hoste GJ, Ruskin DN, Marshall JF (1996) Cerebrocortical Fos expression following dopaminergic stimulation: D1/D2 synergism and its breakdown. Brain Res 728:97–104.
  130. La Hoste GJ, Yu J, Marshall JF (1993) Striatal Fos expression is indicative of dopamine D1/D2 synergism and receptor supersensitivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:7451–7455.
  131. Lange KW, Kornhuber J, Riederer P (1997) Dopamine/glutamate interactions in Parkinson’s disease. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 21:393–400.
  132. Lasater EM, Dowling JE (1982) Carp horizontal cells in culture respond selectively to L-glutamate and its agonists. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:936–940.
  133. Le Moine C, Bloch B (1995) D1 and D2 dopamine receptor gene expression in the rat striatum: Sensitive cRNA probes demonstrate prominent segregation of D1 and D2 mRNAs in distinct neuronal populations of the dorsal and ventral striatum. J Comp Neurol 355:418–426.
  134. Leonard AS, Hell JW (1997) Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C phosphorylate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors at different sites. J Biol Chem 272:12107–12115.
  135. Lester J, Fink S, Aronin N, Di Figlia M (1993) Colocalization of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor mRNAs in striatal neurons. Brain Res 621:106–110.
  136. Levine MS, Altemus KL, Cepeda C, Cromwell HC, Crawford C, Ariano MA, Drago J, Sibley DR, Westphal H (1996a) Modulatory actions of dopamine on NMDA receptor-mediated responses are reduced in D1A-deficient mutant mice. J Neurosci 16:5870–5882.
  137. Levine MS, De Fazio T, Espinosa de los Monteros A, DeVellis J (1997) Dopamine modulation of NMDA-induced calcium transients in fetal neocortical cultures and dissociated neostriatal neurons. Soc Neurosci Abstr 23:1192.
  138. Levine MS, Li Z, Cepeda C, Cromwell HC, Altemus KL (1996b) Neuromodulatory actions of dopamine on synaptically-evoked neostriatal responses in slices. Synapse 24:65–78.
  139. Liste I, Rozas G, Guerra MJ, Labandeira-Garcia JL (1995) Cortical stimulation induces Fos expression in striatal neurons via NMDA glutamate and dopamine receptors. Brain Res 700:1–12.
  140. Lovinger DM, Choi S (1995) Activation of adenosine A1 receptors initiates short-term synaptic depression in rat striatum. Neurosci Lett 199:9–12.
  141. Lovinger DM, Merritt A, Reyes D (1994) Involvement of N- and non-N-type calcium channels in synaptic transmission at corticostriatal synapses. Neuroscience 62:31–40.
  142. Lovinger DM, Tyler E (1996) Synaptic transmission and modulation in the neostriatum. Int Rev Neurobiol 39:77–111.
  143. Lovinger DM, Tyler Ec, Merritt A (1993) Short- and long-term synaptic depression in rat neostriatum. J Neurophysiol 70:1937–1949.
  144. Lukyanetz EA, Kostyuk PG (1996) Two distinct receptors operate the cAMP cascade to up-regulate L-type Ca2+ channels. Pflügers Arch 432:174–181.
  145. Magee JC, Avery RB, Christie BR, Johnston D (1996) Dihydropyridine-sensitive, voltage-gated Ca2+ channels contribute to the resting intracellular Ca2+ concentration of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. J Neurophysiol 76:3460–3470.
  146. Magee JC, Johnston D (1997) A synaptically controlled, associative signal for Hebbian plasticity in hippocampal neurons. Science 275:209–213.
  147. Mahan LC, Burch RM, Monsma FJ, Sibley DR (1990) Expression of striatal D1 dopamine receptors coupled to inositol phosphate production and Ca2+ mobilization in Xenopus oocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:2196–2200.
  148. Markram H, Segal M (1991) Calcimycin potentiates responses of rat hippocampal neurons to N-methyl-D-aspartate. Brain Res 540:322–324.
  149. Marshall JF, Berrios N (1979) Movement disorders of aged rats: Reversal by dopamine receptor stimulation. Science 206:477–479.
  150. Mayer ML, Westbrook GL, Guthrie PB (1984) Voltage-dependent block by Mg2+ of NMDA responses in spinal cord neurones. Nature 309:261–263.
  151. McLaughlin BA, Nelson D, Erecinska M, Chesselet MF (1997) Dopamine potentiates the toxicity of mitochondrial inhibition in vitro. Soc Neurosci Abstr 23:271.
  152. McLennan H, York DH (1967) The action of dopamine on neurones of the caudate nucleus. J Physiol (Lond) 189:393–402.
  153. Merchant KM, Dobie DJ, Dorsa DM (1993) Differential loss of dopamine D2 receptor mRNA isoforms during aging in Fischer-344 rats. Neurosci Lett 154:163–167.
  154. Mercuri N, Bernardi G, Calabresi P, Cotugno A, Levi G, Stanzione P (1985) Dopamine decreases cell excitability in rat striatal neurons by pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. Brain Res 358:110–121.
  155. Mesco ER, Carlson SG, Joseph JA, Roth GS (1993) Decreased striatal D2 dopamine receptor mRNA synthesis during aging. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 17:160–162.
  156. Mirenowicz J, Schultz W (1996) Preferential activation of midbrain dopamine neurons by appetitive rather than aversive stimuli. Nature 379:449–451.
  157. Mirenowicz J, Schultz W (1994) Importance of unpredictability for reward resonses in primate dopamine neurons. J Neurophysiol 72:1024–1027.
  158. Misgeld U, Dodt HU, Frotscher M (1986) Late development of intrinsic excitation in the rat neostriatum: An in vitro study. Brain Res 392:59–67.
  159. Mitchell PR, Doggett NS (1980) Modulation of striatal [3H]-glutamic acid release by dopaminergic drugs. Life Sci 26:2073–2081.
  160. Monaghan DT, Bridges RJ, Cotman CW (1989) The excitatory amino acid receptors: Their classes, pharmacology, and distinct properties in the function of the central nervous system. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 29:365–402.
  161. Monsma FJ, Mahan LC, McVittie LD, Gerfen CR, Sibley DR (1990) Molecular cloning and expression of a D1 dopamine receptor linked to adenylyl cyclase activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:6723–6727.
  162. Monsma FJ, McVittie LD, Gerfen CR, Mahan LC, Sibley DR (1989) Multiple D2 dopamine receptors produced by alternative RNA splicing. Nature 342:926–929.
  163. Morgan DG, Marcusson JO, Nyberg P, Wester P, Winblad B, Gordon MN, Finch CE (1987) Divergent changes in D-1 and D-2 dopamine binding sites in human brain during aging. Neurobiol Aging 8:195–201.
  164. Musleh W, Akopian G, Walsh JP (1997) Novel medial to lateral differences in the expression of short- and long-term synaptic plasticity in the rat striatum. Soc Neurosci Abstr 23:1281.
  165. Nestler EJ (1994) Hard target: Understanding dopaminergic neurotransmission. Cell 79:923–926.
  166. Nicoll RA (1988) The coupling of neurotransmitter receptors to ion channels in the brain. Science 241:545–551.
  167. Nisenbaum ES, Berger TW (1992) Functionally distinct subpopulations of striatal neurons are differentially regulated by GABAergic and dopaminergic inputs. I. In vivo analysis. Neuroscience 48:561–578.
  168. Nishi A, Snyder GL, Fienberg A, Allen P, Fisone G, Nairn AC, Aperia A, Greengard P (1996) Role of DARPP-32 in the regulation of Na+, K+-ATPase activity in striatal neurons. Soc Neurosci Abstr 22:380.
  169. Nishi A, Snyder GL, Greengard P (1997) Bidirectional control of DARPP-32 phosphorylation by dopamine. J Neurosci 17:8147–8155.
  170. Nocross K, Spehlmann R (1978) A quantitative analysis of the excitatory and depressant effects of dopamine on the firing of caudatal neurons: Electrophysiological support for the existence of two distinct dopamine-sensitive receptors. Brain Res 156:168–174.
  171. Nowak I, Bregestovski P, Ascher P, Herbet A, Prochiantz A (1984) Magnesium gates glutamate-activated channels in mouse central neurones. Nature 307:462–465.
  172. O’Malley KL, Harmon S, Tang L, Todd RD (1992) The rat dopamine D4 receptor: Sequence, gene structure, and demonstration of expression in the cardiovascular system. New Biol 4:137–146.
  173. Ohno Y, Sasa M, Takaori S (1987) Coexistence of inhibitory dopamine D-1 and excitatory D-2 receptors on the same caudate nucleus neurons. Life Sci 40:1937–1945.
  174. Otmakhova NA, Lisman JE (1996) D1/D5 dopamine receptor activation increases the magnitude of early long-term potentiation at CA1 hippocampal synapses. J Neurosci 16:7478–7486.
  175. Pfeiffer-Linn C, Lasater EM (1993) Dopamine modulates in a differential fashion T- and L-type calcium currents in bass retinal horizontal cells. J Gen Physiol 102:277–294.
  176. Pierce RC, Rebec GV (1995) Iontophoresis in the neostriatum of awake, unrestrained rats: Differential effects of dopamine, glutamate and ascorbate on motor- and nonmotor-related neurons. Neuroscience 67:313–324.
  177. Pisani A, Calabresi P, Centonze D, Bernardi G (1997) Enhancement of NMDA responses by group I metabotropic glutamate receptor activation in striatal neurones. Br J Pharmacol 120:1007–1014.
  178. Reader TA, Ferron A, Descarries L, Jasper HH (1979) Modulatory role for biogenic amines in the cerebral cortex. Microiontophoretic studies. Brain Res 160:217–229.
  179. Rolls ET (1994) Neurophysiology and cognitive functions of the striatum. Rev Neurol (Paris) 150:648–660.
  180. Rowlands GF, Roberts PJ (1980) Activation of dopamine receptors inhibits calcium-dependent glutamate release from cortico-striatal terminals in vitro. Eur J Pharmacol 62:241–242.
  181. Rutherford A, Garcia-Muñoz M, Arbuthnott GW (1988) An afterhyperpolarization recorded in striatal ‘in vitro’: Effect of dopamine administration. Exp Brain Res 71:399–405.
  182. Schambra UB, Duncan GE, Breese GR, Fornaretto MG, Caron MG, Fremeau RT Jr (1994) Ontogeny of D1A and D2 dopamine receptor subtypes in rat brain using in situ hybridization and receptor binding. Neuroscience 62:65–85.
  183. Schiffmann SN, Lledo PM, Vincent JD (1995) Dopamine D1 receptor modulates the voltage-gated sodium current in rat striatal neurones through a protein kinase A. J Physiol (Lond) 483:95–107.
  184. Schultz W (1997) Dopamine neurons and their role in reward mechanisms. Curr Opin Neurobiol 7:191–197.
  185. Schultz W, Dayan P, Montague PR (1997) A neural substrate of prediction and reward. Science 275:1593–1599.
  186. Schwanstecher C, Panten U (1994) Identification of an ATP-sensitive K+ channel in spiny neurons of rat caudate nucleus. Pflügers Arch 427:187–189.
  187. Shingai R, Christensen BN (1986) Excitable properties and voltage-sensitive ion conductances of horizontal cells isolated from catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) retina. J Neurophysiol 56:32–49.
  188. Sibley DR, Monsma FJ (1992) Molecular biology of dopamine receptors. Trends Pharmacol Sci 13:61–69.
  189. Siggins GR (1978) Electrophysiological role of dopamine in striatum: Excitatory or inhibitory? In Lipton MA, DiMasco A, Killam KF (eds): Psychopharmacology: A Generation of Progress. New York, Raven Press, pp 143–157.
  190. Smart TG (1997) Regulation of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter-gated ion channels by protein phosphorylation. Curr Opin Neurobiol 7:358–367.
  191. Smith AD, Bolam JP (1990) The neural network of the basal ganglia as revealed by the study of synaptic connections of identified neurones. Trends Neurosci 13:259–265.
  192. Snyder G, Fienberg A, Dulubova I, Nairn AC, Greengard P (1996) Dopamine-mediated phosphorylation of NMDA-R1 in the rat nucleus accumbens. Soc Neurosci Abstr 22:380.
  193. Song WJ, Surmeier DJ (1996) Voltage-dependent facilitation of calcium channels in rat neostriatal neurons. J Neurophysiol 76:2290–2306.
  194. Spencer HJ, Havlicek V (1974) Alterations by anesthetic agents of the responses of rat striatal neurons to iontophoretically applied amphetamine, acetylcholine, noradrenaline, and dopamine. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 52:808–813.
  195. Standaert DG, Testa CM, Young AB, Penney JB (1994) Organization of N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor gene expression in the basal ganglia of the rat. J Comp Neurol 343:1–16.
  196. Starr MS (1995) Glutamate/dopamine D1/D2 balance in the basal ganglia and its relevance to Parkinson’s disease. Synapse 19:264–293.
  197. Stoof JC, Kebabian JW (1981) Opposing roles for D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptors in efflux of cyclic AMP from rat neostriatum. Nature 294:366–368.
  198. Stuart G, Sakmann B (1995) Amplification of EPSPs by axosomatic sodium channels in neocortical pyramidal neurons. Neuron 15:1065–1076.
  199. Stuart GJ, Sakmann B (1994) Active propagation of somatic action potentials into neocortical pyramidal cell dendrites. Nature 467:69–72.
  200. Sullivan JM, Lasater EM (1990) An unusually small potassium current that is well-suited to a retinal neuron which is chronically depolarized. Brain Res 528:130–132.
  201. Surmeier DJ, Bargas J, Hemmings HC, Nairn AC, Greengard P (1995) Modulation of calcium currents by a D1 dopaminergic protein kinase/phosphatase cascade in rat neostriatal neurons. Neuron 14:385–397.
  202. Surmeier DJ, Eberwine J, Wilson CJ, Cao Y, Stefani A, Kitai ST (1992) Dopamine receptor subtypes colocalize in rat striatonigral neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:10178–10182.
  203. Surmeier DJ, Kitai ST (1993) D1 and D2 dopamine receptor modulation of sodium and potassium currents in rat neostriatal neurons. Prog Brain Res 99:309–324.
  204. Surmeier DJ, Reiner A, Levine MS, Ariano MA (1993) Are neostriatal dopamine receptors colocalized? Trends Neurosci 16:299–305.
  205. Surmeier DJ, Song WJ, Yan Z (1996) Coordinated expression of dopamine receptors in neostriatal medium spiny neurons. J Neurosci 16:6579–6591.
  206. Szele FG, Artymyshyn R, Molinoff PB, Chesselet MF (1991) Heterogeneous distribution of dopamine D2 receptor mRNA in the rat striatum: A quantitative analysis with in situ hybridization histochemistry. Anat Rec 231:548–558.
  207. Tallaksen-Greene SJ, Wiley RG, Albin RL (1992) Localization of striatal excitatory amino acid binding site subtypes to striatonigral projection neurons. Brain Res 594:165–170.
  208. Trulson ME, Atasteh K (1986) Effects of dopamine and amphetamine on mouse caudate neurons recorded in vitro. Eur J Pharmacol 124:161–165.
  209. Vincent SL, Khan Y, Benes FM (1993) Cellular distribution of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in rat medial prefrontal cortex. J Neurosci 13:2551–2564.
  210. Walsh JP (1991) Long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synaptic input to medium spiny neurons of the rat striatum. Soc Neurosci Abstr 17:852.
  211. Walsh JP (1993) Depression of excitatory synaptic input in rat striatal neurons. Brain Res 608:123–128.
  212. Walsh JP, Dunia R (1993) Synaptic activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors induces short-term potentiation at excitatory synapses in the striatum of the rat. Neuroscience 57:241–248.
  213. Watkins JC, Krogsgaard-Larsen P, Honore T (1990) Structure-activity relationships in the development of excitatory amino acid receptor agonists and competitive antagonists. Trends Pharmacol Sci 11:25–33.
  214. Wickens JR, Begg AJ, Arbuthnott GW (1996) Dopamine reverses the depression of rat corticostriatal synapses which normally follows high-frequency stimulation of cortex in vitro. Neuroscience 70:1–5.
  215. Wickens JR, Reynolds JNJ (1997) Synaptic plasticity in the rat neostriatum in vivo. Soc Neurosci Abstr 23:1281.
  216. Williams PJ, MacVicar BA, Pittman QJ (1990) Synaptic modulation by dopamine of calcium currents in rat pars intermedia. J Neurosci 10:757–763.
  217. Wilson CJ (1990) Basal ganglia; in Shepard GM (ed): The synaptic organization of the brain. New York, Oxford University Press, pp 279–316.
  218. Wilson CJ, Kawaguchi Y (1996) The origins of two-state spontaneous membrane potential fluctuations of neostriatal spiny neurons. J Neurosci 16:2397–2410.
  219. Yamamoto BK, Davy S (1992) Dopaminergic modulation of glutamate release in striatum as measured by microdialysis. J Neurochem 58:1736–1742.
  220. York DH (1967) The inhibitory action of dopamine on neurones of the caudate nucleus. Brain Res 5:263–266.
  221. Yung KK, Bolam JP, Smith AD, Hersch SM, Ciliax BJ, Levey AI (1995) Immunocytochemical localization of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia of the rat: Light and electron microscopy. Neuroscience 65:709–730.
  222. Zador A, Koch C, Brown TH (1990) Biophysical model of a Hebbian synapse. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:6718–6722.
  223. 1Akaike A, Ohno Y, Sasa M, Takaori S (1987) Excitatory and inhibitory effects of dopamine on neuronal activity of the caudate nucleus neurons in vitro. Brain Res 418:262–272.
  224. 2Albin RL, Makowiec RL, Hollingsworth ZR, Dure LS, Penney JB, Young AB (1992) Excitatory amino acid binding sites in the basal ganglia of the rat: A quantitative autoradiographic study. Neuroscience 46:35–48.
  225. 3Altemus KL, Levine MS (1996) Potassium channel blockade does not alter the modulatory effects of dopamine in neostriatal slices. Brain Res 718:212–216.