Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 20, No. 6, 1998
Issue release date: November–December 1998 (December 1998)
Dev Neurosci 1998;20:525–532
(DOI:10.1159/000017353)

Dose-Dependent Effects of Multiple Acute Cocaine Injections on Maternal Behavior and Aggression in Sprague-Dawley Rats

Johns J.M. · Nelson C.J. · Meter K.E. · Lubin D.A. · Couch C.D. · Ayers A. · Walker C.H.
Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C., USA

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

Rat dams, which had no prior drug treatment, were either nontreated controls or were injected subcutaneously 4 times during a 10-day period with a single dose of 30, 15 or 7.5 mg/kg of cocaine hydrochloride HCl, or normal saline. Injections were given immediately postpartum following delivery of their final pup (PPD 1), and again on postpartum day 3 (PPD 3), postpartum day 6 (PPD 6) and postpartum day 10 (PPD 10). Dams were observed 30 min following injections for maternal behavior (MB) towards 8 surrogate male pups on PPD 1 and PPD 3 and for aggression towards a male or female intruder in the presence of their litter on PPD 6 and PPD 10. Compared to saline and untreated controls, cocaine-treated dams exhibited more disruptions in MB on both PPD 1 and PPD 3 and were less aggressive towards an intruder, regardless of intruder sex, on PPD 6 and PPD 10. In most cases MB was altered in a dose-dependent manner with the higher doses of cocaine resulting in a greater disruption of behavior.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Ball SA, Mayes LC, DeTeso JA RS: Maternal attentiveness of cocaine abusers during child-based assessments. Am J Addict 1997;6:135–143.
  2. Dembo R, Williams L, Wish ED, Berry E, Getreu A, Washburn M, Schmeidler J: Examination of the relationships among drug use, emotional/psychological problems, and crime among youths entering a juvenile detention center. Int J Addict 1990;25:1301–1340.
  3. Burns K, Chethik L, Burns WJ, Clark R: Dyadic disturbances in cocaine-abusing mothers and their infants. J Clin Psychol 1991;47:316–319.
  4. Murphy JM, Jellinik M, Quinn D, Smith G, Poitrast FG, Goshko M: Substance abuse and serious child mistreatment: Prevalence, risk and outcome in a court sample. Child Abuse Negl 1991;15:197–211.
  5. Kelly SJ, Walsh JH, Thompson K: Birth outcomes, health problems, and neglect with prenatal exposure to cocaine. Pediatr Nurs 1991;17:130–136.
  6. Heyser CJ, Molina VA, Spear LP: A fostering study of the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure. I. Maternal behaviors. Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol 1992;14:415–422.
  7. Kinsley CH, Turco D, Bauer A, Beverly M, Wellman J, Graham AL: Cocaine alters the onset and maintenance of maternal behavior in lactating rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1994;47:857–864.
  8. Peeke HV, Dark KA, Salamy A, Salfi M, Shah SN: Cocaine exposure prebreeding to weaning: Maternal and offspring effects. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1994;48:403–410.
  9. Vernotica EM, Lisciotto CA, Rosenblatt JS, Morrell JI: Cocaine transiently impairs maternal behavior in the rat. Behav Neurosci 1996;110:315–323.
  10. Sobrian SK, Burton LE, Robinson NL, Ashe WK, James H, Stokes KL, Turner LM: Neurobehavioral and immunological effects of prenatal cocaine exposure in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1990;35:617–629.
  11. Fahrbach SE, Morrell JI, Pfaff DW: Oxytocin induction of short-latency maternal behavior, in nulliparous, estrogen-primed female rats. Horm Behav 1984;18:267–286.
  12. Pedersen CA, Ascher JA, Monroe YL, Prange AJ: Oxytocin induces behavior in virgin female rats. Science 1982;216:648–649.
  13. Pedersen CA, Prange AJ: Induction of maternal behavior in virgin rats after intracerebroventricular administration of oxytocin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1979;76:6661–6665.
  14. Fahrbach SE, Morrell JI, Pfaff DW: Possible role for endogenous oxytocin in estrogen-facilitated maternal behavior in rats. Neuroendocrinology 1985;40:526–532.
  15. Pedersen CA, Caldwell JD, Walker CH, Ayers G, Mason GA: Oxytocin activates the postpartum onset of rat maternal behavior in the ventral tegmental and medial preoptic areas. Behav Neurosci 1994;108:1163–1171.
  16. Van Leengoed E, Kerker E, Swanson HH: Inhibition of postpartum maternal behavior in the rat by injecting an oxytocin antagonist into the cerebral ventricles. J Endocrinol 1987;112:275–282.
  17. Kozlowski GP, Nilaver G: Localization of neurohypophyseal hormones in the mammalian brain; in de Wied D, Gispen WH, van Wimersma Greidanus Tj B (eds): Neuropeptides and Behavior: The Neurohypophyseal Hormones. Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1986, vol 2, pp 23–38.
  18. Insel TR, Harbaugh CR: Lesions of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus disrupt the initiation of maternal behavior. Physiol Behav 1989;45:1033–1041.
  19. Numan M, Corodimas KP: The effects of paraventricular hypothalamic lesions on maternal behavior in rats. Physiol Behav 1985;35:415–425.

    External Resources

  20. Johns JM, Noonan LR, Zimmerman LI, Li L, Pedersen CA: Effects of chronic and acute cocaine treatment on the onset of maternal behavior and aggression in Sprague-Dawley rats. Behav Neurosci 1994;108:107–112.
  21. Johns JM, Faggin BM, Noonan LR, Li L, Zimmermann LI, Pedersen CA: Chronic cocaine treatment decreases oxytocin levels in the amygdala and increases aggression in Sprague-Dawley rats (abstract). Soc Neurosci Abstr 1995;21:1954.
  22. Johns JM, Noonan LR, Zimmerman LI, Li L, Pedersen CA: Effects of short and long-term withdrawal from gestational cocaine on maternal behavior and aggression in Sprague-Dawley rats. Dev Neurosci 1997;19:368–374.

    External Resources

  23. Zimmerberg B, Grey MS: The effects of cocaine on maternal behaviors in the rat. Physiol Behav 1992;52:379–384.
  24. Konig JFR, Klippel RA: The Rat Brain: A Stereotaxic Atlas of the Forebrain and Lower Parts of the Brain Stem. New York, Krieger, 1963.
  25. Hadley ME: Endocrinology. Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, 1992.
  26. Brown RE: An Introduction to Neuroendocrinology. New York, Cambridge University Press, 1994.
  27. Johns JM, Lubin DA, Walker CH, Meter KE, Mason GA: Chronic gestational cocaine treatment decreases oxytocin levels in the medial preoptic area, ventral tegmental area and hippocampus in Sprague-Dawley rats. Neuropeptides 1997;31:439–443.

    External Resources

  28. Kovacs GL, Sarnyai Z, Babarczi E, Szabo G, Telegdy G: The role of oxytocin-dopamine interactions in cocaine-induced locomotor hyperactivity. Neuropharmacology 1990;29:365–368.
  29. Vernotica EM, Rosenblatt JS; Morrell JI: Acute cocaine alters all components of established postpartum maternal behavior in the rat (abstract 738.6). Soc Neurosci Abstr 1996;22:1884.
  30. Nelson CJ, Ayers A; Meter KE, Walker CH, Johns JM: Chronic cocaine treatment alters maternal behavior in a dose response manner in Sprague Dawley rats (abstract 738.8). Soc Neurosci Abstr 1996;22:1884.
  31. Mayer AD, Carter L, Jorge WH, Mota MJ, Tannu S, Rosenblatt JS: Mammary stimulation and maternal aggression in rodents: Thelectomy fails to reduce pre- or postpartum aggression in rats. Horm Behav 1987;21:501–510.
  32. Stern JM, Levine S: Pituitary-adrenal activity in the postpartum rat in the absence of suckling stimulation. Horm Behav 1972;3:237–246.

    External Resources



Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 9.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 8.00