Left Ventricular Systolic and Diastolic Function in Healthy Adult Bonnet Macaques (Macaca radiata)
New Echocardiographic Indices in Old World MonkeysLazar J.M. · Qureshi G. · Qureshi M.R. · Smith E. · Scharf B. · Rosenblum L.A. · Signaevsky M. · Kral J.G. · Salciccioli L.
Divisions of aCardiovascular Medicine and bLaboratory Animal Resources, cPrimate Behavior Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, and dDepartment of Surgery, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, N.Y., USA
Objectives: Macaques are used in cardiovascular and metabolic research. We determined echocardiographic-derived reference values of left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function in healthy adult bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). Methods: Transthoracic echocardiography was performed during ketamine sedation in 83 (67% female) healthy monkeys (age 7–26 years). Results: Technically adequate studies were obtained in all subjects and required 10.1 ± 1.3 min of scanning time. Age correlated inversely with the following Doppler indices: E (r = –0.44, p < 0.001), E/A (r = –0.26, p = 0.02), E′ (r = –0.45, p < 0.001, E′/A′ (r = –0.44, p < 0.001), E/E′ (r –0.25, p = 0.03), S′ (r = –0.33, p = 0.003), Vp (r = –0.26, p = 0.049). LV mass was more strongly correlated with crown rump length (r = 0.72, p < 0.001) and body surface area (r = 0.70, p < 0.001) than with body mass index (r = 0.47, p < 0.001) and weight (r = 0.63, p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study demonstrates echocardiography is feasible for characterizing LV function. Age-related changes in Doppler indices in primates are similar to those in humans. LV mass is more closely related to fat-free mass indices. We provide reference values for LV systolic and diastolic function in adult bonnet macaques across the captive life span.
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