Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 113, No. 2, 2009
Issue release date: April 2009
Cardiology 2009;113:116–121
(DOI:10.1159/000176065)

Left Ventricular Systolic and Diastolic Function in Healthy Adult Bonnet Macaques (Macaca radiata)

New Echocardiographic Indices in Old World Monkeys

Lazar J.M. · Qureshi G. · Qureshi M.R. · Smith E. · Scharf B. · Rosenblum L.A. · Signaevsky M. · Kral J.G. · Salciccioli L.
Divisions of aCardiovascular Medicine and bLaboratory Animal Resources, cPrimate Behavior Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, and dDepartment of Surgery, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, N.Y., USA

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

Objectives: Macaques are used in cardiovascular and metabolic research. We determined echocardiographic-derived reference values of left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function in healthy adult bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). Methods: Transthoracic echocardiography was performed during ketamine sedation in 83 (67% female) healthy monkeys (age 7–26 years). Results: Technically adequate studies were obtained in all subjects and required 10.1 ± 1.3 min of scanning time. Age correlated inversely with the following Doppler indices: E (r = –0.44, p < 0.001), E/A (r = –0.26, p = 0.02), E′ (r = –0.45, p < 0.001, E′/A′ (r = –0.44, p < 0.001), E/E′ (r –0.25, p = 0.03), S′ (r = –0.33, p = 0.003), Vp (r = –0.26, p = 0.049). LV mass was more strongly correlated with crown rump length (r = 0.72, p < 0.001) and body surface area (r = 0.70, p < 0.001) than with body mass index (r = 0.47, p < 0.001) and weight (r = 0.63, p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study demonstrates echocardiography is feasible for characterizing LV function. Age-related changes in Doppler indices in primates are similar to those in humans. LV mass is more closely related to fat-free mass indices. We provide reference values for LV systolic and diastolic function in adult bonnet macaques across the captive life span.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Haider B, Yeh CK, Thomas G, Oldewurtel HA, Lyons MM, Regan TJ: Altered myocardial function and collagen in diabetic rhesus monkeys on atherogenic diet. Trans Assoc Am Physicians 1978;9:197–203.
  2. Swindle MM, Blum JR, Lima SD, Weiss JL: Spontaneous mitral valve prolapse in a breeding colony of rhesus monkeys. Circulation 1985;1:146–153.
  3. Kazakova RT, Iurenev AP, Kulaev BS, Nazin AN, Shevchenko IuV: Results of echocardiographic studies Macaca mulatta monkeys at rest (in Russian). Kosm Biol Aviakosm Med 1985;19:81–84.
  4. Crawford MH, Walsh RA, Cragg D, Freeman GL, Miller J: Echocardiographic left ventricular mass and function in the hypertensive baboon. Hypertension 1987;10:339–345.
  5. Wallrabe D, Wolter F, Heine H, Martin G, Urmantscheeva T, Storrer W: The application of the Doppler echocardiography for the determination of the prompt hemodynamic reactors in the rhesus monkeys. Z Klin Med 1989;44:483–492.
  6. Williams JK, Anthony MS, Clarkson TB: Coronary heart disease in rhesus monkeys with diet-induced coronary artery atherosclerosis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1991;115:784–790.
  7. Vaitkevicius PV, Lane M, Spurgeon H, Ingram DK, Roth GS, Egan JJ, et al: A cross-link breaker has sustained effects on arterial and ventricular properties in older rhesus monkeys. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001;98:1171–1175.
  8. Friscino BH, Stone JD, Harback E, Spina D, Gantert LT, Anderson LC: Normal cardiac ultrasonographic measurements in the rhesus macaque. Contemporary Topics 1996;35:65.
  9. Korcarz CE, Padrid PA, Shroff SG, Weinert L, Lang RM: Doppler echocardiographic reference values for healthy rhesus monkeys under ketamine hydrochloride sedation. J Med Primatol 1997;26:287–298.
  10. Zhang Y, Tang H, Huang H: Echocardiography of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Chin J Zool Peking 2005;40:95–98.
  11. Reite M, Short R: Behavior and physiology in young bonnet monkeys. Dev Psychobiol 1986;19:567–579.
  12. Swindle MM, Blum JR, Weiss JL: Morphometric studies of the heart in normal rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). J Med Primatol 1986;15:433–440.
  13. Buss DD, Hyde DM, Poulos PW Jr: Coronary artery distribution in bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata). Anat Rec 1982;203:411–417.
  14. Sandhyamani S: Cardiovascular effects in bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata) of a cassava-based protein-deficient diet. Vet Hum Toxicol 1991;33:429–430.
  15. Sandhyamani S: Vasculopathic and cardiomyopathic changes induced by low-protein high-carbohydrate tapioca based diet in bonnet monkey. Vasculopathic and cardiomyopathic changes in induced malnutrition. Am J Cardiovasc Pathol 1992;4:41–50.
  16. Kawashima T, Sato K, Akita K, Sasaki H: Comparative anatomical study of the autonomic cardiac nervous system in macaque monkeys. J Morphol 2005;266:112–124.
  17. Nussmeier NA, Benthuysen JL, Steffey EP, Anderson JH, Carstens EE, Eisele JH, et al: Cardiovascular, respiratory, and analgesic effects of fentanyl in unanesthetized rhesus monkeys. Anesth Analg 1991;72:221–226.
  18. Norol F, Bonnet N, Peinnequin A, Chretien F, Legrand R, Isnard R, Herodin F, Baillou C, Delache B, Negre D, Klatzmann D, Vernant JP, Lemoine FM: GFP-transduced CD34+ and Lin– CD34– hematopoietic stem cells did not adopt a cardiac phenotype in a nonhuman primate model of myocardial infarct. Exp Hematol 2007;35:653–661.
  19. Garcia M, Thomas J, Klein A: New Doppler echocardiographic applications for the study of diastolic function. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998;32:865–875.
  20. Kaufman D, Smith ELP, Gohil BC, Banerji M, Coplan JD, Kral JG, et al: Early appearance of the metabolic syndrome in socially reared bonnet macaques. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90:404–408.
  21. Jen KL, Hansen BC, Metzger BL: Adiposity, anthropometric measures, and plasma insulin levels of rhesus monkeys. Int J Obes 1985;9:213–224.
  22. Liu CT, Higbee GA: Determination of body surface area in the rhesus monkey. J Appl Physiol 1976;40:101–104.
  23. Lang RM, Bierig M, Devereux RB, Flachskampf FA, Foster E, Pellikka PA, et al: European Society of Echocardiography recommendations for chamber quantification: a report from the American Society of Echocardiography’s Guidelines and Standards Committee and the Chamber Quantification Writing Group, developed in conjunction with the European Association of Echocardiography, a branch of the European Society of Cardiology. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2005;18:1440–1463.
  24. Sahn DJ, Demaria A, Kisslo J, Weyman A: Recommendations regarding quantitation in M-mode echocardiography: results of a survey of echocardiographic measurements. Circulation 1978;58:1072.
  25. Kuch B, Gneiting B, Doring A, Muscholl M, Brockel U, Schunkert H, et al: Indexation of left ventricular mass in adults with a novel approximation for fat-free mass. J Hypertens 2001;19:135–142.
  26. Tei C, Nishimura RA, Seward JB, Tajik AJ: Noninvasive Doppler-derived myocardial performance index: correlation with simultaneous measurements of cardiac catheterization measurements. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1997;10:169–178.
  27. Vasan RS, Larson MG, Levy D, Evans JC, Benjamin EJ: Distribution and categorization of echocardiographic measurements in relation to reference limits: the Framingham Heart Study: formulation of a height- and sex-specific classification and its prospective validation. Circulation 1997;96:1863–1873.
  28. Hense HW, Gneiting B, Muscholl M, Broeckel U, Kuch B, Doering A, et al: The associations of body size and body composition with left ventricular mass: impacts for indexation in adults. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998;32:451–457.
  29. Henry WL, Gardin JM, Ware JH: Echocardiographic measurements in normal subjects from infancy to old age. Circulation 1980;62:1054–1061.
  30. Koenig SC, Ludwig DA, Reister C, Fanton JW, Ewert D, Convertino VA: Left ventricular, systemic arterial, and baroreflex responses to ketamine and TEE in chronically instrumented monkeys. Comp Med 2001;51:513–517.


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50