Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 190, No. 2, 2009
Issue release date: July 2009

Effect of Mechanical Stimulation on Osteoblast- and Osteoclast-Like Cells in vitro

Kadow-Romacker A. · Hoffmann J.E. · Duda G. · Wildemann B. · Schmidmaier G.
To view the fulltext, log in and/or choose pay-per-view option

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

Bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts play an important role during maintenance, adaptation and healing of bone, and both cell types are influenced by physical activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a narrow mechanical stimulation window on osteoblast- and osteoclast-like cells. Primary human cells were cultured on a bone-like structure (dentine) and three-point bending with approximately 1,100 microstrain was applied to the dentine at varying frequencies (0.1 and 0.3 Hz) and duration (1, 3 and 5 min daily over 5 days) resulting in different patterns of mechanical stimulation of osteoblast- and osteoclast-like cells. The longest stimulation (5 min at 0.1 Hz) induced a significant increase in osteoblast alkaline phosphatase activity and a significant decrease in osteoprotegerin (OPG) production, and resulted in a significant increase in the soluble receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (sRANKL)/OPG ratio towards sRANKL in comparison to the unstimulated osteoblast-like cells. All stimulations caused a significant decrease in collagen type 1 synthesis. Stimulation for 1 min at 0.3 Hz decreased the fusion and resorption activity of the osteoclast-like cells. These results demonstrate a direct effect of mechanical stimuli on osteoblast-like cells as well as on osteoclast formation and activity in vitro. The change in the sRANKL/OPG ratio towards the stimulation of osteoclastogenesis stresses the necessity to investigate the effect of the same stimulation parameter on the co-culture of both cell types.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Buckley, M. J., A.J. Banes, R.D. Jordan (1990) The effects of mechanical strain on osteoblasts in vitro. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 48: 276–282.
  2. Burger, E.H., J. Klein-Nulend, T.H. Smit (2003) Strain-derived canalicular fluid flow regulates osteoclast activity in a remodelling osteon – a proposal. J Biomech 36: 1453–1459.
  3. Claes, L. E., C.A. Heigele, C. Neidlinger-Wilke, D. Kaspar, W. Seidl, K.J. Margevicius, P. Augat (1998) Effects of mechanical factors on the fracture healing process. Clin Orthop Relat Res S132–S147.
  4. Di Palma, F., M. Douet, C. Boachon, A. Guignandon, S. Peyroche, B. Forest, C. Alexandre, A. Chamson, A. Rattner (2003) Physiological strains induce differentiation in human osteoblasts cultured on orthopaedic biomaterial. Biomaterials 24: 3139–3151.
  5. Duncan, R.L., C.H. Turner (1995) Mechanotransduction and the functional response of bone to mechanical strain. Calcif Tissue Int 57:344–358.
  6. Epari, D.R., H. Schell, H.J. Bail, G.N. Duda (2006) Instability prolongs the chondral phase during bone healing in sheep. Bone 38: 864–870.
  7. Frost, H.M. (1992) Perspectives: bone’s mechanical usage windows. Bone Miner 19: 257–271.
  8. Husheem, M., J.K. Nyman, J. Vaaraniemi, H.K. Vaananen, T.A. Hentunen (2005) Characterization of circulating human osteoclast progenitors: development of in vitro resorption assay. Calcif Tissue Int 76: 222–230.
  9. Ignatius, A., H. Blessing, A. Liedert, D. Kaspar, L. Kreja, B. Friemert, L. Claes (2004) Effects of mechanical strain on human osteoblastic precursor cells in type I collagen matrices (in German). Orthopade 33: 1386–1393.
  10. Ignatius, A., H. Blessing, A. Liedert, C. Schmidt, C. Neidlinger-Wilke, D. Kaspar, B. Friemert, L. Claes (2005) Tissue engineering of bone: effects of mechanical strain on osteoblastic cells in type I collagen matrices. Biomaterials 26: 311–318.
  11. Ishijima, M., Y. Ezura, K. Tsuji, S.R. Rittling, H. Kurosawa, D.T. Denhardt, M. Emi, A. Nifuji, M. Noda (2006) Osteopontin is associated with nuclear factor κB gene expression during tail-suspension-induced bone loss. Exp Cell Res 312: 3075–3083.
  12. Kaspar, D., W. Seidl, C. Neidlinger-Wilke, L. Claes (2000a) In vitro effects of dynamic strain on the proliferative and metabolic activity of human osteoblasts. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 1: 161–164.
  13. Kaspar, D., W. Seidl, C. Neidlinger-Wilke, A. Ignatius, L. Claes (2000b) Dynamic cell stretching increases human osteoblast proliferation and CICP synthesis but decreases osteocalcin synthesis and alkaline phosphatase activity. J Biomech 33: 45–51.
  14. Kim, C.H., L. You, C.E. Yellowley, C.R. Jacobs (2006) Oscillatory fluid flow-induced shear stress decreases osteoclastogenesis through RANKL and OPG signaling. Bone 39: 1043–1047.
  15. Kurata, K., T. Uemura, A. Nemoto, T. Tateishi, T. Murakami, H. Higaki, H. Miura, Y. Iwamoto (2001) Mechanical strain effect on bone-resorbing activity and messenger RNA expressions of marker enzymes in isolated osteoclast culture. J Bone Miner Res 16: 722–730.
  16. Lacey, D.L., E. Timms, H.L. Tan, M.J. Kelley, C.R. Dunstan, T. Burgess, R. Elliott, A. Colombero, G. Elliott, S. Scully, H. Hsu, J. Sullivan, N. Hawkins, E. Davy, C. Capparelli, A. Eli, Y.X. Qian, S. Kaufman, I. Sarosi, V. Shalhoub, G. Senaldi, J. Guo, J. Delaney, W.J. Boyle (1998) Osteoprotegerin ligand is a cytokine that regulates osteoclast differentiation and activation. Cell 93: 165–176.
  17. Liu, J., T. Liu, Y. Zheng, Z. Zhao, Y. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Luo, Y. Chen (2006) Early responses of osteoblast-like cells to different mechanical signals through various signaling pathways. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 348: 1167–1173.
  18. MacQuarrie, R.A., Y. Fang Chen, C. Coles, G.I. Anderson (2004) Wear-particle-induced osteoclast osteolysis: the role of particulates and mechanical strain. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 69: 104–112.
  19. Manolagas, S.C. (2000) Birth and death of bone cells: basic regulatory mechanisms and implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of osteoporosis. Endocr Rev 21: 115–137.
  20. Morey, E.R., D.J. Baylink (1978) Inhibition of bone formation during space flight. Science 201: 1138–1141.
  21. Neidlinger-Wilke, C., I. Stalla, L. Claes, R. Brand, I. Hoellen, S. Rubenacker, M. Arand, L. Kinzl (1995) Human osteoblasts from younger normal and osteoporotic donors show differences in proliferation and TGF beta-release in response to cyclic strain. J Biomech 28: 1411–1418.
  22. Neidlinger-Wilke, C., H.J. Wilke, L. Claes (1994) Cyclic stretching of human osteoblasts affects proliferation and metabolism: a new experimental method and its application. J Orthop Res 12: 70–78.
  23. Owan, I., D.B. Burr, C.H. Turner, J. Qiu, Y. Tu, J.E. Onyia, R.L. Duncan (1997) Mechanotransduction in bone: osteoblasts are more responsive to fluid forces than mechanical strain. Am J Physiol 273: C810–C815.
  24. Patterson-Buckendahl, P.E., R.E. Grindeland, R.B. Martin, C.E. Cann, S.B. Arnaud (1985) Osteocalcin as an indicator of bone metabolism during spaceflight. Physiologist 28: S227–S228.
  25. Rahnert, J., X. Fan, N. Case, T.C. Murphy, F. Grassi, B. Sen, J. Rubin (2008) The role of nitric oxide in the mechanical repression of RANKL in bone stromal cells. Bone 43: 48–54.
  26. Rambaut, P.C., A.W. Goode (1985) Skeletal changes during space flight. Lancet ii: 1050–1052.
  27. Robey, P.G., J.D. Termine (1985) Human bone cells in vitro. Calcif Tissue Int 37: 453–460.
  28. Rubin, C., S. Judex, Y.X. Qin (2006) Low-level mechanical signals and their potential as a non-pharmacological intervention for osteoporosis. Age Ageing 35(suppl 2): ii32–ii36.
  29. Rubin, J., D. Biskobing, X. Fan, C. Rubin, K. McLeod, W.R. Taylor (1997) Pressure regulates osteoclast formation and MCSF expression in marrow culture. J Cell Physiol 170: 81–87.
  30. Rubin, J., X. Fan, D.M. Biskobing, W.R. Taylor, C.T. Rubin (1999) Osteoclastogenesis is repressed by mechanical strain in an in vitro model. J Orthop Res 17: 639–645.
  31. Rubin, J., T. Murphy, M.S. Nanes, X. Fan (2000) Mechanical strain inhibits expression of osteoclast differentiation factor by murine stromal cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 278: C1126–C1132.
  32. Saunders, M.M., A.F. Taylor, C. Du, Z. Zhou, V.D. Pellegrini, Jr., H.J. Donahue (2006) Mechanical stimulation effects on functional end effectors in osteoblastic MG-63 cells. J Biomech 39: 1419–1427.
  33. Schell, H., D.R. Epari, J.P. Kassi, H. Bragulla, H.J. Bail, G.N. Duda (2005) The course of bone healing is influenced by the initial shear fixation stability. J Orthop Res 23: 1022–1028.
  34. Schmidt, C., D. Kaspar, M.R. Sarkar, L.E. Claes, A.A. Ignatius (2002) A scanning electron microscopy study of human osteoblast morphology on five orthopedic metals. J Biomed Mater Res 63: 252–261.
  35. Stadelmann, V.A., A. Terrier, D.P. Pioletti (2008) Microstimulation at the bone-implant interface upregulates osteoclast activation pathways. Bone 42: 358–364.
  36. Stein, G. S., J.B. Lian (1993) Molecular mechanisms mediating proliferation/differentiation interrelationships during progressive development of the osteoblast phenotype. Endocr Rev 14: 424–442.
  37. Tang, L., Z. Lin, Y.M. Li (2006) Effects of different magnitudes of mechanical strain on osteoblasts in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 344: 122–128.
  38. Teitelbaum, S. L. (2000) Bone resorption by osteoclasts. Science 289: 1504–1508.
  39. Theoleyre, S., Y. Wittrant, S.K. Tat, Y. Fortun, F. Redini, D. Heymann (2004) The molecular triad OPG/RANK/RANKL: involvement in the orchestration of pathophysiological bone remodeling. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 15: 457–475.
  40. Trepczik, B., J. Lienau, H. Schell, D.R. Epari, M.S. Thompson, J.E. Hoffmann, A. Kadow-Romacker, S. Mundlos, G.N. Duda (2007) Endochondral ossification in vitro is influenced by mechanical bending. Bone 40: 597–603.
  41. You, J., C.E. Yellowley, H.J. Donahue, Y. Zhang, Q. Chen, C.R. Jacobs (2000) Substrate deformation levels associated with routine physical activity are less stimulatory to bone cells relative to loading-induced oscillatory fluid flow. J Biomech Eng 122: 387–393.
  42. You, J., G.C. Reilly, X. Zhen, C.E. Yellowley, Q. Chen, H.J. Donahue, C.R. Jacobs (2001) Osteopontin gene regulation by oscillatory fluid flow via intracellular calcium mobilization and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. J Biol Chem 276: 13365–13371.
  43. Zhuang, H., W. Wang, A.D. Tahernia, C.L. Levitz, W.T. Luchetti, C.T. Brighton (1996) Mechanical strain-induced proliferation of osteoblastic cells parallels increased TGF-beta 1 mRNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 229: 449–453.


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50