Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 48, No. 3, 1997
Issue release date: 1997
Horm Res 1997;48:95–102
(DOI:10.1159/000185497)

Gynecomastia: Pathomechanisms and Treatment Strategies

Mathur R. · Braunstein G.D.
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center-UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, Calif., USA

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

Gynecomastia is common in adolescents and adults, and reflects an underlying imbalance in hormonal physiology in which there is an increase in estrogen action relative to androgen action at the breast tissue level. Most patients have persistent pubertal gynecomastia or breast glandular enlargement from medications, age-related reduction in testicular function, or idiopathic causes. Gynecomastia must be differentiated from pseudogynecomastia due to increased breast adipose tissue, as well as from breast carcinoma. The evaluation of the causes of gynecomastia can be accomplished through history, physical examination and a few laboratory tests. Painful gynecomastia of recent onset may respond to antiestrogen therapy. Surgical removal is the mainstay for long-standing gynecomastia or glandular enlargement that is unresponsive to medical therapy.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50