Efficacy of Homeopathically Potentized Antimony on Blood Coagulation
A Randomized Placebo Controlled Crossover TrialHeusser P. · Berger S. · Stutz M. · Hüsler A. · Haeberli A. · Wolf U.
a Department of Anthroposophic Medicine, Institute of Complementary Medicine KIKOM, University of Bern, b Thrombosis Laboratory, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, c Institute of Mathematical Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Bern, Switzerland
Background: Homeopathically potentized antimony 6x is traditionally used in anthroposophic medicine for an alleged pro-coagulatory effect in bleeding disorders. However, the scientific evidence base is yet insufficient. Results of a previous in vitro study suggested a slight increase of maximal clot firmness (MCF) and a tendency towards a shorter clotting time (CT). The objective of this study was to investigate the pro-coagulatory effects of antimony in vivo, and possible unexpected or adverse events. Participants and Methods: A randomized placebo controlled double blind crossover study was carried out in 30 healthy volunteers (15 males, 15 females). Each participant received intravenously 10 ml of antimony 6x and placebo in a randomized order at an interval of 1 month. Thrombelastography (TEG) was carried out immediately before and 30 and 60 min after the injection. Results: Statistically significant pro-coagulatory effects were observed 30 min after injection for CT in men (p = 0.0306), and for MCF in men and women combined (p = 0.0476). The effect of antimony was significantly larger on test day 1 than on test day 2, whereas the effect of placebo was similar on both test days. No unexpected adverse or adverse events causally related to antimony were observed. Conclusion: This study adds evidence to the hypothesis that homeopathically potentized antimony may be efficacious in vivo. The consistency of the results with previous in vitro results indicates an effect on MCF and CT. The in vivo application of antimony 6x is safe.