Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 54, No. 1, 2009
Issue release date: March 2009
Section title: Original Paper
Ann Nutr Metab 2009;54:15–21
(DOI:10.1159/000199454)

Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency in Brazilian Adolescents

Peters B.S.E. · dos Santos L.C. · Fisberg M. · Wood R.J. · Martini L.A.
aNutrition Department, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, bNursing School, Minas Gerais Federal University, Belo Horizonte, and cPediatrics Division, São Paulo Federal University, São Paulo, Brazil; dMineral Bioavailability Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, Mass., USA

Do you have an account?

Register and profit from personalized services (MyKarger) Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information









I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

Register and profit from personalized services (MyKarger) Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information









I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger (new!)
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
  • Reduced rates with a PPV account
read more

Direct: USD 38.00
Account: USD 26.50

Select

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restriction apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00

Select

Subscribe

  • Automatic perpetual access to all articles of the subscribed year(s)
  • Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Subcription rates


Select


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: 7/23/2008
Accepted: 12/3/2008
Published online: 2/5/2009

Number of Print Pages: 7
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 3

ISSN: 0250-6807 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9697 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/ANM

Abstract

Background/Aims: Cutaneous sun exposure and dietary vitamin D intake are important determinants of vitamin D status. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the vitamin D status of a group of healthy adolescent students living in Brazil. Methods: One hundred and thirty-six adolescents, 64 boys and 72 girls, aged 16–20 years old, living in a rural town in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, participated in this study. Results: The mean dietary vitamin D intake was 140 (120–156) IU/day [3.5 (3.0–3.9) μg/day]. Only 14.9% of the students met the daily adequate intake recommendation of vitamin D. Only 27.9% practice physical activity outdoors and 17.6% of the adolescents apply sunscreen daily. The mean 25(OH)D concentration was 73.0 (22.0) nmol/l [29.2 (8.8) ng/ml]. Vitamin D insufficiency was observed in 60% of adolescents. Conclusions: The present study suggests that even in a sunny climate like Brazil the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in adolescents is high. Most likely this is due to low intakes of vitamin D in this group. Due to the limited extent of natural dietary sources of vitamin D, a policy of vitamin D food fortification should be considered in the future, and in the meantime greater use of vitamin D supplements in this population group should be encouraged to provide the increased amounts of this essential nutrient for optimal health.


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: 7/23/2008
Accepted: 12/3/2008
Published online: 2/5/2009

Number of Print Pages: 7
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 3

ISSN: 0250-6807 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9697 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/ANM


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Kun Z, Greenfield H, Xueqin D, Fraser DR: Improvement of bone health in childhood and adolescence. Nutr Res Rev 2001;14:114–151.

    External Resources

  2. Slemenda CW, Reister TK, Hui SL, Miller JZ, Christian JC, Johnston CC: Influences on skeletal mineralization in children and adolescents: evidence for varying effects of sexual maturation and physical activity. J Pediatr 1994;125:201–207.
  3. Teegarden D, Proulx WR, Martin BR, Zhao J, McCabe GP, Lyle RM, Peacock M, Slemenda C, Johnston CC, Weaver CM: Peak bone mass in young women. J Bone Miner Res 1995;10:711–715.
  4. Sabatier JP, Guaydier-Souquieres G, Benmalek A, Marcelli C: Evolution of lumbar bone mineral content during adolescence and adulthood: a longitudinal study in 395 healthy females 10–24 years of age and 206 premenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 1999;9:476–482.
  5. Henry YM, Fatayerji D, Eastell R: Attainment of peak bone mass at the lumbar spine, femoral neck and radius in men and women: relative contributions of bone size and volumetric bone mineral density. Osteoporos Int 2004;15:263–273.
  6. Heaney RP, Abrams S, Dawson-Hughes B, Looker A, Marcus R, Matkovic V, Weaver C: Peak bone mass. Osteoporos Int 2000;11:985–1009.
  7. Saggese G, Baroncelli GI, Bertelloni S: Osteoporosis in children and adolescents: diagnosis, risk factors, and prevention. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2001;14:833–859.
  8. Jouanny P, Guillemin F, Kuntz C, Jeandel C, Pourel J: Environmental and genetic factors affecting bone mass. Similarity of bone density among members of healthy families. Arthritis Rheum 1995;38:61–67.
  9. Rubin LA, Hawker GA, Peltekova VD, Fielding LJ, Ridout R, Cole DE: Determinants of peak bone mass: clinical and genetic analyses in a young female Canadian cohort. J Bone Miner Res 1999;14:633–643.
  10. Fehily AM, Coles RJ, Evans WD, Elwood PC: Factors affecting bone density in young adults. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;56:579–586.
  11. Wang MC, Crawford PB, Hudes M, Van Loan M, Siemering K, Bachrach LK: Diet in midpuberty and sedentary activity in prepuberty predict peak bone mass. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:495–503.
  12. Holick MF: Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1678S–1688S.
  13. Specker BL, Ho ML, Oestreich A, Yin TA, Shui QM, Chen XC, Tsang RC: Prospective study of vitamin D supplementation and rickets in China. J Pediatr 1992;120:733–739.
  14. Balasubramanian K, Rajeswari J, Gulab, Govil YC, Agarwal AK, Kumar A, Bhatia V: Varying role of vitamin D deficiency in the etiology of rickets in young children versus adolescents in northern India. J Trop Pediatr 2003;49:201–206.
  15. Willet AM: Vitamin D status and its relationship with parathyroid hormone and bone mineral status in older adolescents. Proc Nutr Soc 2005;64:193–203.
  16. Harkness LS, Cromer BA: Vitamin D deficiency in adolescent females. J Adolesc Health 2005;37:75.
  17. Outila TA, Karkkainen MU, Lamberg-Allardt CJ: Vitamin D status affects serum parathyroid hormone concentrations during winter in female adolescents: associations with forearm bone mineral density. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:206–210.
  18. Guillemant J, Taupin P, Le HT, Taright N, Allemandou A, Péres G, Guillemant S: Vitamin D status during puberty in French healthy male adolescents. Osteoporos Int 1999;10:222–225.
  19. Gordon CM, DePeter KC, Feldman HA, Grace E, Emans SJ: Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004;158:531–537.
  20. Holick MF: Vitamin D: A millennium perspective. J Cell Biochem 2003;88:296–307.
  21. Harkness LS, Cromer BA: Low levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D are associated with elevated parathyroid hormone in healthy adolescent females. Osteoporos Int 2005;16:109–113.
  22. Sullivan SS, Rosen CJ, Halteman WA, Chen TC, Holick MF: Adolescent girls in Maine are at risk for vitamin D insufficiency. J Am Diet Assoc 2005;105:971–974.
  23. Looker AC, Dawson-Hughes B, Calvo MS, Gunter EW, Sahyoun NR: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of adolescents and adults in two seasonal subpopulations from NHANES III. Bone 2002;30:771–777.
  24. El-Hajj Fuleihan G, Nabulsi M, Choucair M, Salamoun M, Hajj Shahine C, Kizirian A, Tannous R: Hypovitaminosis D in healthy schoolchildren. Pediatrics 2001;107:E53.
  25. Docio S, Riancho JA, Pérez A, Olmos JM, Amado JA, González-Macias J: Seasonal deficiency of vitamin D in children: a potential target for osteoporosis-preventing strategies? J Bone Miner Res 1998;13:544–548.
  26. Lehtonen-Veromaa M, Mottonen T, Irjala K, Karkkainen M, Lamberg-Allardt C, Hakola P, Vitkari J: Vitamin D intake is low and hypovitaminosis D common in healthy 9- to 15-year-old Finnish girls. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999;53:746–751.
  27. Du X, Greenfield H, Fraser DR, Ge K, Trube A, Wang Y: Vitamin D deficiency and associated factors in adolescent girls in Beijing. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:494–500.
  28. Guillemant J, Le HT, Maria A, Allemandou A, Peres G, Guillemant S: Wintertime vitamin D deficiency in male adolescents: effect on parathyroid function and response to vitamin D3 supplements. Osteoporos Int 2001;12:875–879.
  29. Tylavsky FA, Ryder KA, Lyytikäinen A, Cheng S: Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and bone mass in adolescents. J Nutr 2005;135:2735S–2738S.
  30. Center of Disease Control and Prevention: National Center for Health Statistics. CDC Growth Charts 2000, United States: http://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts.
  31. Rodríguez G, Moreno LA, Blay MG, Blay VA, Garagorri JM, Sarría A, Bueno M: Body composition in adolescents: measurements and metabolic aspects. Int J Obes 2004;28:S54–S58.

    External Resources

  32. Florindo AA, Romero A, Peres SV, Silva MV, Slater B: Development and validation of a physical activity assessment questionnaire for adolescents (in Portuguese). Rev Saúde Pública 2006;40:802–809.
  33. Pate RR, Freedson PS, Sallis JF, Taylor WC, Sirard J, Trost SG, Dowda M: Compliance with physical activity guidelines: prevalence in a population of children and youth. Ann Epidemiol 2002;12:303–308.
  34. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Dietrich T, Dawson-Hughes B: Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:18–28.
  35. Livesey J, Elder P, Ellis MJ, McKenzie R, Liley B, Florkowski C: Seasonal variation in vitamin D levels in the Canterbury, New Zealand population in relation to available UV radiation. NZ Med J 2007;120:U2733.

    External Resources

  36. Bouillon R, Carmeliet G, Daci E, Segaert S, Verstuyf A: Vitamin D metabolism and action. Osteoporos Int 1998;8(suppl):S13–S19.
  37. Salamoun MM, Kizirian AS, Tannous RI, Nabulsi MM, Choucair MK, Deeb ME, El-Hajj Fuleihan GA: Low calcium and vitamin D intake in healthy children and adolescents and their correlates. Eur J Clin Nutr 2005;59:177–184.
  38. Moore C, Murphy M, Keast D, et al: Vitamin D intake in the United States. J Am Diet Assoc 2004;104:980–983.
  39. NHANES III: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_11/sr11_245.pdf.
  40. Martini LA, Wood RJ: Vitamin D status and the metabolic syndrome. Nutr Rev 2006;64:479–486.
  41. Snijder MB, van Dam RM, Visser M, et al: Adiposity in relation to vitamin D status and parathyroid hormone levels: a population-based study in older men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90:4119–4123.