Vol. 27, No. 3, 2009
Issue release date: March 2009
Free Access
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2009;27:201–213
(DOI:10.1159/000203344)
Review Article
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Literature Review of the Clock Drawing Test as a Tool for Cognitive Screening

Pinto E. · Peters R.
Care of the Elderly, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK
email Corresponding Author


 goto top of outline Key Words

  • Clock Drawing Test
  • Cognitive screening
  • Mild cognitive impairment

 goto top of outline Abstract

Background/Aims: The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is used in clinical practice for the screening of cognitive disorders. This systematic review aims to present and discuss the CDT scoring methods available in the literature, in order to find differences in administration and utility of the CDT. Methods: A literature search was carried out in Medline (1966 to June 2008), Psychinfo (1967 to June 2008) and EMBASE (1980 to June 2008). Results: All studies showed good interrater and test-retest reliabilities. The correlation with other standard screening tests was statistically significant in most studies, but the results were influenced by age, education and language. In studies that included patients with mild or questionable dementia, the CDT had a low sensitivity and variable specificity. Conclusion: The CDT has the characteristics of a good screening method for moderate and severe dementia. However, the scoring method used and potential confounders need to be taken into consideration.

Copyright © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel


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    External Resources


 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Dr. Elisabete Pinto
Care of the Elderly, Imperial College London, Faculty of Medicine
Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road
London W12 0NN (UK)
Tel. +44 20 8383 4282, Fax +44 20 8383 3378, E-Mail e.pinto@imperial.ac.uk


 goto top of outline Article Information

Accepted: October 16, 2008
Published online: February 19, 2009
Number of Print Pages : 13
Number of Figures : 0, Number of Tables : 6, Number of References : 60


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders

Vol. 27, No. 3, Year 2009 (Cover Date: March 2009)

Journal Editor: Chan-Palay V. (New York, N.Y.)
ISSN: 1420-8008 (Print), eISSN: 1421-9824 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/DEM


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