Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 71, No. 3, 2009
Issue release date: July 2009
ORL 2009;71:129–134

Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis Model of Pyriform Sinus Carcinoma

Shen N. · Wu H. · Xu X. · Wang J. · Hoffman M.R. · Rieves A.L. · Zhou L.
aDepartment of Otolaryngology, ZhongShan Hospital, and bDepartment of Otolaryngology, Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; cDepartment of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wisconsin and Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisc., USA

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in


Objective: To establish a cervical lymph node metastasis model of pyriform sinus VX2 carcinoma and investigate its metastatic features. Methods: VX2 tumor tissue suspension was transplanted into the pyriform sinus submucosa of 15 rabbits under direct laryngoscopy. Rabbits were randomly placed into 1 of 3 groups, each comprised of 5 rabbits. Health evaluation and histopathological analysis were performed on days 14 (group 1), 21 (group 2), and 28 (group 3) after transplantation. Results: VX2 tumors were transplanted successfully in all rabbits. Dysphagia, weight loss, rhinorrhea, and dyspnea were observed 28 days after transplantation. Deep cervical lymph node metastasis occurred in all rabbits at all time points. The rate of submandibular lymph node metastasis was 60% in group 1, 80% in group 2, and 100% in group 3. The rate of paratracheal lymph node metastasis was 0% in group 1, 80% in group 2, and 100% in group 3. Conclusions: A model of metastatic pyriform sinus carcinoma was established. This model could be used in future studies evaluating diagnostic and treatment methods.

Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.


  1. Godballe C, Jørgensen K, Hansen O, et al: Hypopharyngeal cancer: results of treatment based on radiation therapy and salvage surgery. Laryngoscope 2002;112:834–838.
  2. Gourin CG, Terris DJ: Carcinoma of the hypopharynx. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 2004;13:81–98.
  3. Buckley JG, MacLennan K: Cervical node metastases in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer: a prospective analysis of prevalence and distribution. Head Neck 2000;22:380–385.
  4. Sapundzhiev NR, Dünne AA, Ramaswamy A, et al: Lymph node metastasis in an animal model: effect of piecemeal laser surgical resection. Lasers Surg Med 2005;36:371–376.
  5. Dunne AA, Schmidt A, Kuropkat C, et al: The auricular VX2 carcinoma – an animal model for sentinel node concept. In Vivo 2003;17:457–461.
  6. Jefferis AE, Berenbaum MC: The rabbit VX2 tumor as a model for carcinoma of the tongue and larynx. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 1989;108:152–160.
  7. Rous P, Kidd JG, Smith WE: Experiments on the cause of rabbit carcinoma derived from virus-induced papillomas. J Exp Med 1952;96:159–174.
  8. Dünne AA, Mandic R, Ramaswamy A, et al: Lymphogenic metastatic spread of auricular VX2 carcinoma in New Zealand white rabbits. Anticancer Res 2002;22:3273–3279.
  9. Seki S, Fujimura A: Three-dimensional changes in lymphatic architecture around VX2 tongue cancer – dynamic changes after administration of antiangiogenic agent. Lymphology 2003;36:199–208.
  10. Koo BS, Lim YC, Lee JS, et al: Management of contra-lateral N0 neck in pyriform sinus carcinoma. Laryngoscope 2006;116:1268–1272.
  11. Mercante G, Bacciu A, Oretti G, et al: Involvement of level I neck lymph nodes and submandibular gland in laryngeal and/or hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. J Otolaryngol 2006;35:108–111.
  12. Tomifuji M, Shiotani A, Fujii H, et al: Sentinel node concept in clinically n0 laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. Ann Surg Oncol 2008;15:2568–2575.
  13. Cai S, Xie Y, Bagby TR, et al: Intralymphatic chemotherapy using a hyaluronan-cisplatin conjugate. J Surg Res 2008;147:247–252.
  14. Aklilu M, Ilson DH: Targeted agents and esophageal cancer – the next step? Semin Radiat Oncol 2007;17:62–69.
  15. Santos ES, Perez C, Donald CE, et al: Targeting important pathways in head and neck cancer: from the bench to the clinic. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2008;8:1819–1835.

Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50