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Table of Contents
Vol. 68, No. 1, 2009
Issue release date: April 2009
Hum Hered 2009;68:45–54
(DOI:10.1159/000210448)

Local Population Structure in Arabian Peninsula Revealed by Y-STR Diversity

Alshamali F.a · Pereira L.b, c · Budowle B.d · Poloni E.S.e · Currat M.e
aDubai Police Forensic Administration, Dubai, UAE; bIPATIMUP (Instituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto), and cMedical Faculty, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; dFederal Bureau of Investigation, Laboratory Division, Quantico, Va., USA, and eLaboratoire d’Anthropologie, Génétique et Peuplements (AGP), Département d’Anthropologie et Ecologie, Université de Genève, Carouge, Switzerland
email Corresponding Author

Abstract

Genetic studies have been underway on Arabian Peninsula populations because of their pivotal geographic location for population migration and times of occurrence. To assist in better understanding population dynamics in this region, evidence is presented herein on local population structure in the Arabian Peninsula, based on Y-STR characterisation in four Arabian samples and its comparison in a broad geographical scale. Our results demonstrate that geography played an important role in shaping the genetic structure of the region around the Near-East. Populations are grouped regionally but none of these groups is significantly differentiated from others and all groups merge in the Near-East, in keeping with this important migration corridor for the human species. Focusing on the Arabian Peninsula, we show that Dubai and Oman share genetic affinities with other Near-Eastern populations, while Saudi Arabia and Yemen show a relative distinctive isolated background. Those two populations may have been kept relatively separated from migration routes, maybe due to their location in a desert area.


 goto top of outline Key Words

  • Y-STR
  • Population structure
  • Arabian Peninsula

 goto top of outline Abstract

Genetic studies have been underway on Arabian Peninsula populations because of their pivotal geographic location for population migration and times of occurrence. To assist in better understanding population dynamics in this region, evidence is presented herein on local population structure in the Arabian Peninsula, based on Y-STR characterisation in four Arabian samples and its comparison in a broad geographical scale. Our results demonstrate that geography played an important role in shaping the genetic structure of the region around the Near-East. Populations are grouped regionally but none of these groups is significantly differentiated from others and all groups merge in the Near-East, in keeping with this important migration corridor for the human species. Focusing on the Arabian Peninsula, we show that Dubai and Oman share genetic affinities with other Near-Eastern populations, while Saudi Arabia and Yemen show a relative distinctive isolated background. Those two populations may have been kept relatively separated from migration routes, maybe due to their location in a desert area.

Copyright © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel


 goto top of outline References
  1. Torroni A, Achilli A, Macaulay V, Richards M, Bandelt HJ: Harvesting the fruit of the human mtDNA tree. Trends Genet 2006;22:339–345.
  2. Macaulay V, Hill C, Achilli A, Rengo C, Clarke D, Meehan W, Blackburn J, Semino O, Scozzari R, Cruciani F, Taha A, Shaari NK, Raja JM, Ismail P, Zainuddin Z, Goodwin W, Bulbeck D, Bandelt HJ, Oppenheimer S, Torroni A, Richards M: Single, rapid coastal settlement of Asia revealed by analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes. Science 2005;308:1034–1036.
  3. Thangaraj K, Chaubey G, Kivisild T, Reddy AG, Singh VK, Rasalkar AA, Singh L: Reconstructing the origin of Andaman Islanders. Science 2005;308:996.
  4. Abu-Amero KK, Gonzalez AM, Larruga JM, Bosley TM, Cabrera VM: Eurasian and African mitochondrial DNA influences in the Saudi Arabian population. BMC Evol Biol 2007;7:32.
  5. Cerny V, Mulligan CJ, Ridl J, Zaloudkova M, Edens CM, Hajek M, Pereira L: Regional differences in the distribution of the sub-Saharan, West Eurasian, and South Asian mtDNA lineages in Yemen. Am J Phys Anthropol 2008;136:128–137.
  6. Kivisild T, Reidla M, Metspalu E, Rosa A, Brehm A, Pennarun E, Parik J, Geberhiwot T, Usanga E, Villems R: Ethiopian mitochondrial DNA heritage: tracking gene flow across and around the gate of tears. Am J Hum Genet 2004;75:752–770.
  7. Alshamali F, Brandstätter A, Zimmermann B, Parson W: Mitochondrial DNA control region variation in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Forensic Sci Int: Genet 2008:e9–e10.
  8. Richards M, Rengo C, Cruciani F, Gratrix F, Wilson JF, Scozzari R, Macaulay V, Torroni A: Extensive female-mediated gene flow from sub-Saharan Africa into near eastern Arab populations. Am J Hum Genet 2003;72:1058–1064.
  9. Luis JR, Rowold DJ, Regueiro M, Caeiro B, Cinnioglu C, Roseman C, Underhill PA, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Herrera RJ: The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: evidence for bidirectional corridors of human migrations. Am J Hum Genet 2004;74:532–544.
  10. Arredi B, Poloni ES, Paracchini S, Zerjal T, Fathallah DM, Makrelouf M, Pascali VL, Novelletto A, Tyler-Smith C: A predominantly neolithic origin for Y-chromosomal DNA variation in North Africa. Am J Hum Genet 2004;75:338–345.
  11. Pereira L, Dupanloup I, Rosser ZH, Jobling MA, Barbujani G: Y-chromosome mismatch distributions in Europe. Mol Biol Evol 2001;18:1259–1271.
  12. Dupanloup I, Pereira L, Bertorelle G, Calafell F, Prata MJ, Amorim A, Barbujani G: A recent shift from polygyny to monogamy in humans is suggested by the analysis of worldwide Y-chromosome diversity. J Mol Evol 2003;57:85–97.
  13. Currat M, Excoffier L: The effect of the Neolithic expansion on European molecular diversity. Proc Biol Sci 2005;272:679–688.
  14. Pereira L, Gusmao L, Alves C, Amorim A, Prata MJ: Bantu and European Y-lineages in Sub-Saharan Africa. Ann Hum Genet 2002;66:369–378.
  15. Roewer L, Croucher PJ, Willuweit S, Lu TT, Kayser M, Lessig R, de Knijff P, Jobling MA, Tyler-Smith C, Krawczak M: Signature of recent historical events in the European Y-chromosomal STR haplotype distribution. Hum Genet 2005;116:279–291.
  16. Kayser M, Lao O, Anslinger K, Augustin C, Bargel G, Edelmann J, Elias S, Heinrich M, Henke J, Henke L, Hohoff C, Illing A, Jonkisz A, Kuzniar P, Lebioda A, Lessig R, Lewicki S, Maciejewska A, Monies DM, Pawlowski R, Poetsch M, Schmid D, Schmidt U, Schneider PM, Stradmann-Bellinghausen B, Szibor R, Wegener R, Wozniak M, Zoledziewska M, Roewer L, Dobosz T, Ploski R: Significant genetic differentiation between Poland and Germany follows present-day political borders, as revealed by Y-chromosome analysis. Hum Genet 2005;117:428–443.
  17. Roewer L, Krawczak M, Willuweit S, Nagy M, Alves C, Amorim A, Anslinger K, Augustin C, Betz A, Bosch E, Caglia A, Carracedo A, Corach D, Dekairelle AF, Dobosz T, Dupuy BM, Furedi S, Gehrig C, Gusmao L, Henke J, Henke L, Hidding M, Hohoff C, Hoste B, Jobling MA, Kargel HJ, de Knijff P, Lessig R, Liebeherr E, Lorente M, Martinez-Jarreta B, Nievas P, Nowak M, Parson W, Pascali VL, Penacino G, Ploski R, Rolf B, Sala A, Schmidt U, Schmitt C, Schneider PM, Szibor R, Teifel-Greding J, Kayser M: Online reference database of European Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes. Forensic Sci Int 2001;118:106–113.
  18. Hallenberg C, Simonsen B, Sanchez J, Morling N: Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in Somalis. Forensic Sci Int 2005;151:317–321.
  19. Excoffier L, Laval G, Schneider S: Arlequin ver. 3.0: An integrated software package for population genetics data analysis. Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online 2005;1:47–50.
  20. Balloux F, Goudet J: Statistical properties of population differentiation estimators under stepwise mutation in a finite island model. Mol Ecol 2002;11:771–783.
  21. Reynolds J, Weir BS, Cockerham CC: Estimation of the Coancestry Coefficient: Basis for a Short-Term Genetic Distance. Genetics 1983;105:767–779.
  22. Rohlf FJ: NTSYSpc: Numerical Taxonomy System, ver. 2.10. InSetauket, NY, Exeter Publishing, Ltd, 2007.
  23. Dupanloup I, Schneider S, Excoffier L: A simulated annealing approach to define the genetic structure of populations. Mol Ecol 2002;11:2571–2581.
  24. Wright S: Isolation by Distance. Genetics 1943;28:114–138.
  25. Glennie KW, Singhvi AK: Event stratigraphy, paleoenvironment and chronology of SE Arabian deserts. Quat Sci Rev 2002;21:853–869.

    External Resources

  26. Cavalli-Sforza LL, Menozi P, Piazza A: The History and Geography of Human Genes. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1994.
  27. Regueiro M, Cadenas AM, Gayden T, Underhill PA, Herrera RJ: Iran: tricontinental nexus for Y-chromosome driven migration. Hum Hered 2006;61:132–143.
  28. Quintana-Murci L, Chaix R, Wells RS, Behar DM, Sayar H, Scozzari R, Rengo C, Al-Zahery N, Semino O, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Coppa A, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Tyler-Smith C, Qasim Mehdi S, Torroni A, McElreavey K: Where west meets east: the complex mtDNA landscape of the southwest and Central Asian corridor. Am J Hum Genet 2004;74:827–845.
  29. Seielstad MT, Minch E, Cavalli-Sforza LL: Genetic evidence for a higher female migration rate in humans. Nat Genet 1998;20:278–280.
  30. Salem AH, Badr FM, Gaballah MF, Pääbo S: The genetics of traditional living: Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial lineages in the Sinai Peninsula. Am J Hum Genet 1996;59:741–743.
  31. Rowold DJ, Luis JR, Terreros MC, Herrera RJ: Mitochondrial DNA geneflow indicates preferred usage of the Levant Corridor over the Horn of Africa passageway. J Hum Genet 2007;52:436–447.
  32. Olivieri A, Achilli A, Pala M, Battaglia V, Fornarino S, Al-Zahery N, Scozzari R, Cruciani F, Behar DM, Dugoujon JM, Coudray C, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Semino O, Bandelt HJ, Torroni A: The mtDNA legacy of the Levantine early Upper Palaeolithic in Africa. Science 2006;314:1767–1770.
  33. Quintana-Murci L, Bigham A, Rouba H, Barakat A, McElreavey K, Hammer M: Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in Berber and Arabic-speaking populations from Morocco. Forensic Sci Int 2004;140:113–115.
  34. Manni F, Leonardi P, Barakat A, Rouba H, Heyer E, Klintschar M, McElreavey K, Quintana-Murci L: Y-chromosome analysis in Egypt suggests a genetic regional continuity in Northeastern Africa. Hum Biol 2002;74:645–658.
  35. Abdin L, Dewa K, Rand S, Hohoff C, Brinkmann B: Analysis of 13 Y-chromosomal STRs in an Arab population sample from Syria. Prog Forensic Genet 2003;1239:319–321.
  36. Brinkmann C, Forster P, Schürenkamp M, Horst J, Rolf B, Brinkmann B: Human Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a Kurdish population sample. Int J Legal Med 1999;112:181–183.
  37. Nasidze I, Schadlich H, Stoneking M: Haplotypes from the Caucasus, Turkey and Iran for nine Y-STR loci. Forensic Sci Int 2003;137:85–93.
  38. Cakir AH, Celebioglu A, Yardimci E: Y-STR haplotypes in Central Anatolia region of Turkey. Forensic Sci Int 2004;144:59–64.
  39. Henke J, Henke L, Chatthopadhyay P, Kayser M, Dulmer M, Cleef S, Poche H, Felske-Zech H: Application of Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes to forensic genetics. Croat Med J 2001;42:292–297.
  40. Barbarii LE, Rolf B, Dermengiu D: Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a Romanian population sample. Int J Legal Med 2003;117:312–315.
  41. Klaric IM, Lauc LB, Pericic M, Janicijevic B, Terzic R, Colak I, Kvesic A, Rudan P: Evaluation of Y-STR variation in Bosnian and Herzegovinian population. Forensic Sci Int 2005;154:252–256.
  42. Lauc LB, Pericic M, Klaric IM, Sijacki A, Popovic D, Janicijevic B, Rudan P: Y chromosome STR polymorphisms in a Serbian population sample. Forensic Sci Int 2005;150:97–101.
  43. Lovrecic L, Ristic S, Brajenovic B, Kapovic M, Peterlin B: Human Y-specific STR haplotypes in the Western Croatian population sample. Forensic Sci Int 2005;149:257–261.
  44. Robino C, Gino S, Ricci U, Grignani P, Previdere C, Torre C: Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in an Albanian population sample. Forensic Sci Int 2002;129:128–130.
  45. Spiroski M, Arsov T, Kruger C, Willuweit S, Roewer L: Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in Macedonian population samples. Forensic Sci Int 2005;148:69–73.
  46. Parreira KS, Lareu MV, Sanchez-Diz P, Skitsa I, Carracedo A: DNA typing of short tandem repeat loci on Y-chromosome of Greek population. Forensic Sci Int 2002;126:261–264.
  47. Zaharova B, Andonova S, Gilissen A, Cassiman JJ, Decorte R, Kremensky I: Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in three major population groups in Bulgaria. Forensic Sci Int 2001;124:182–186.
  48. Presciuttini S, Caglia A, Alu M, Asmundo A, Buscemi L, Caenazzo L, Carnevali E, Carra E, De Battisti Z, De Stefano F, Domenici R, Piccinini A, Resta N, Ricci U, Pascali VL: Y-chromosome haplotypes in Italy: the GEFI collaborative database. Forensic Sci Int 2001;122:184–188.
  49. Frank WE, Ralph HC, Tahir MA: Y chromosome STR haplotypes and allele frequencies in a southern Indian male population. J Forensic Sci 2008;53:248–251.
  50. Nagy M, Henke L, Henke J, Chatthopadhyay PK, Volgyi A, Zalan A, Peterman O, Bernasovska J, Pamjav H: Searching for the origin of Romanies: Slovakian Romani, Jats of Haryana and Jat Sikhs Y-STR data in comparison with different Romani populations. Forensic Sci Int 2007;169:19–26.
  51. Mohyuddin A, Ayub Q, Qamar R, Zerjal T, Helgason A, Mehdi SQ, Tyler-Smith C: Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in Pakistani populations. Forensic Sci Int 2001;118:141–146.

 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Luísa Pereira
IPATIMUP
R. Dr. Roberto Frias s/n
PT–4200-465 Porto (Portugal)
Tel. +351 22 557 0700, Fax +351 22 557 0799, E-Mail lpereira@ipatimup.pt


 goto top of outline Article Information

Received: July 10, 2008
Accepted after revision: October 23, 2008
Published online: April 1, 2009
Number of Print Pages : 10
Number of Figures : 3, Number of Tables : 5, Number of References : 51


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Human Heredity (International Journal of Human and Medical Genetics)

Vol. 68, No. 1, Year 2009 (Cover Date: April 2009)

Journal Editor: Devoto M. (Philadelphia, Pa.)
ISSN: 0001-5652 (Print), eISSN: 1423-0062 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/HHE


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Abstract

Genetic studies have been underway on Arabian Peninsula populations because of their pivotal geographic location for population migration and times of occurrence. To assist in better understanding population dynamics in this region, evidence is presented herein on local population structure in the Arabian Peninsula, based on Y-STR characterisation in four Arabian samples and its comparison in a broad geographical scale. Our results demonstrate that geography played an important role in shaping the genetic structure of the region around the Near-East. Populations are grouped regionally but none of these groups is significantly differentiated from others and all groups merge in the Near-East, in keeping with this important migration corridor for the human species. Focusing on the Arabian Peninsula, we show that Dubai and Oman share genetic affinities with other Near-Eastern populations, while Saudi Arabia and Yemen show a relative distinctive isolated background. Those two populations may have been kept relatively separated from migration routes, maybe due to their location in a desert area.



 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Luísa Pereira
IPATIMUP
R. Dr. Roberto Frias s/n
PT–4200-465 Porto (Portugal)
Tel. +351 22 557 0700, Fax +351 22 557 0799, E-Mail lpereira@ipatimup.pt


 goto top of outline Article Information

Received: July 10, 2008
Accepted after revision: October 23, 2008
Published online: April 1, 2009
Number of Print Pages : 10
Number of Figures : 3, Number of Tables : 5, Number of References : 51


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Human Heredity (International Journal of Human and Medical Genetics)

Vol. 68, No. 1, Year 2009 (Cover Date: April 2009)

Journal Editor: Devoto M. (Philadelphia, Pa.)
ISSN: 0001-5652 (Print), eISSN: 1423-0062 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/HHE


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Torroni A, Achilli A, Macaulay V, Richards M, Bandelt HJ: Harvesting the fruit of the human mtDNA tree. Trends Genet 2006;22:339–345.
  2. Macaulay V, Hill C, Achilli A, Rengo C, Clarke D, Meehan W, Blackburn J, Semino O, Scozzari R, Cruciani F, Taha A, Shaari NK, Raja JM, Ismail P, Zainuddin Z, Goodwin W, Bulbeck D, Bandelt HJ, Oppenheimer S, Torroni A, Richards M: Single, rapid coastal settlement of Asia revealed by analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes. Science 2005;308:1034–1036.
  3. Thangaraj K, Chaubey G, Kivisild T, Reddy AG, Singh VK, Rasalkar AA, Singh L: Reconstructing the origin of Andaman Islanders. Science 2005;308:996.
  4. Abu-Amero KK, Gonzalez AM, Larruga JM, Bosley TM, Cabrera VM: Eurasian and African mitochondrial DNA influences in the Saudi Arabian population. BMC Evol Biol 2007;7:32.
  5. Cerny V, Mulligan CJ, Ridl J, Zaloudkova M, Edens CM, Hajek M, Pereira L: Regional differences in the distribution of the sub-Saharan, West Eurasian, and South Asian mtDNA lineages in Yemen. Am J Phys Anthropol 2008;136:128–137.
  6. Kivisild T, Reidla M, Metspalu E, Rosa A, Brehm A, Pennarun E, Parik J, Geberhiwot T, Usanga E, Villems R: Ethiopian mitochondrial DNA heritage: tracking gene flow across and around the gate of tears. Am J Hum Genet 2004;75:752–770.
  7. Alshamali F, Brandstätter A, Zimmermann B, Parson W: Mitochondrial DNA control region variation in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Forensic Sci Int: Genet 2008:e9–e10.
  8. Richards M, Rengo C, Cruciani F, Gratrix F, Wilson JF, Scozzari R, Macaulay V, Torroni A: Extensive female-mediated gene flow from sub-Saharan Africa into near eastern Arab populations. Am J Hum Genet 2003;72:1058–1064.
  9. Luis JR, Rowold DJ, Regueiro M, Caeiro B, Cinnioglu C, Roseman C, Underhill PA, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Herrera RJ: The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: evidence for bidirectional corridors of human migrations. Am J Hum Genet 2004;74:532–544.
  10. Arredi B, Poloni ES, Paracchini S, Zerjal T, Fathallah DM, Makrelouf M, Pascali VL, Novelletto A, Tyler-Smith C: A predominantly neolithic origin for Y-chromosomal DNA variation in North Africa. Am J Hum Genet 2004;75:338–345.
  11. Pereira L, Dupanloup I, Rosser ZH, Jobling MA, Barbujani G: Y-chromosome mismatch distributions in Europe. Mol Biol Evol 2001;18:1259–1271.
  12. Dupanloup I, Pereira L, Bertorelle G, Calafell F, Prata MJ, Amorim A, Barbujani G: A recent shift from polygyny to monogamy in humans is suggested by the analysis of worldwide Y-chromosome diversity. J Mol Evol 2003;57:85–97.
  13. Currat M, Excoffier L: The effect of the Neolithic expansion on European molecular diversity. Proc Biol Sci 2005;272:679–688.
  14. Pereira L, Gusmao L, Alves C, Amorim A, Prata MJ: Bantu and European Y-lineages in Sub-Saharan Africa. Ann Hum Genet 2002;66:369–378.
  15. Roewer L, Croucher PJ, Willuweit S, Lu TT, Kayser M, Lessig R, de Knijff P, Jobling MA, Tyler-Smith C, Krawczak M: Signature of recent historical events in the European Y-chromosomal STR haplotype distribution. Hum Genet 2005;116:279–291.
  16. Kayser M, Lao O, Anslinger K, Augustin C, Bargel G, Edelmann J, Elias S, Heinrich M, Henke J, Henke L, Hohoff C, Illing A, Jonkisz A, Kuzniar P, Lebioda A, Lessig R, Lewicki S, Maciejewska A, Monies DM, Pawlowski R, Poetsch M, Schmid D, Schmidt U, Schneider PM, Stradmann-Bellinghausen B, Szibor R, Wegener R, Wozniak M, Zoledziewska M, Roewer L, Dobosz T, Ploski R: Significant genetic differentiation between Poland and Germany follows present-day political borders, as revealed by Y-chromosome analysis. Hum Genet 2005;117:428–443.
  17. Roewer L, Krawczak M, Willuweit S, Nagy M, Alves C, Amorim A, Anslinger K, Augustin C, Betz A, Bosch E, Caglia A, Carracedo A, Corach D, Dekairelle AF, Dobosz T, Dupuy BM, Furedi S, Gehrig C, Gusmao L, Henke J, Henke L, Hidding M, Hohoff C, Hoste B, Jobling MA, Kargel HJ, de Knijff P, Lessig R, Liebeherr E, Lorente M, Martinez-Jarreta B, Nievas P, Nowak M, Parson W, Pascali VL, Penacino G, Ploski R, Rolf B, Sala A, Schmidt U, Schmitt C, Schneider PM, Szibor R, Teifel-Greding J, Kayser M: Online reference database of European Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes. Forensic Sci Int 2001;118:106–113.
  18. Hallenberg C, Simonsen B, Sanchez J, Morling N: Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in Somalis. Forensic Sci Int 2005;151:317–321.
  19. Excoffier L, Laval G, Schneider S: Arlequin ver. 3.0: An integrated software package for population genetics data analysis. Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online 2005;1:47–50.
  20. Balloux F, Goudet J: Statistical properties of population differentiation estimators under stepwise mutation in a finite island model. Mol Ecol 2002;11:771–783.
  21. Reynolds J, Weir BS, Cockerham CC: Estimation of the Coancestry Coefficient: Basis for a Short-Term Genetic Distance. Genetics 1983;105:767–779.
  22. Rohlf FJ: NTSYSpc: Numerical Taxonomy System, ver. 2.10. InSetauket, NY, Exeter Publishing, Ltd, 2007.
  23. Dupanloup I, Schneider S, Excoffier L: A simulated annealing approach to define the genetic structure of populations. Mol Ecol 2002;11:2571–2581.
  24. Wright S: Isolation by Distance. Genetics 1943;28:114–138.
  25. Glennie KW, Singhvi AK: Event stratigraphy, paleoenvironment and chronology of SE Arabian deserts. Quat Sci Rev 2002;21:853–869.

    External Resources

  26. Cavalli-Sforza LL, Menozi P, Piazza A: The History and Geography of Human Genes. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1994.
  27. Regueiro M, Cadenas AM, Gayden T, Underhill PA, Herrera RJ: Iran: tricontinental nexus for Y-chromosome driven migration. Hum Hered 2006;61:132–143.
  28. Quintana-Murci L, Chaix R, Wells RS, Behar DM, Sayar H, Scozzari R, Rengo C, Al-Zahery N, Semino O, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Coppa A, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Tyler-Smith C, Qasim Mehdi S, Torroni A, McElreavey K: Where west meets east: the complex mtDNA landscape of the southwest and Central Asian corridor. Am J Hum Genet 2004;74:827–845.
  29. Seielstad MT, Minch E, Cavalli-Sforza LL: Genetic evidence for a higher female migration rate in humans. Nat Genet 1998;20:278–280.
  30. Salem AH, Badr FM, Gaballah MF, Pääbo S: The genetics of traditional living: Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial lineages in the Sinai Peninsula. Am J Hum Genet 1996;59:741–743.
  31. Rowold DJ, Luis JR, Terreros MC, Herrera RJ: Mitochondrial DNA geneflow indicates preferred usage of the Levant Corridor over the Horn of Africa passageway. J Hum Genet 2007;52:436–447.
  32. Olivieri A, Achilli A, Pala M, Battaglia V, Fornarino S, Al-Zahery N, Scozzari R, Cruciani F, Behar DM, Dugoujon JM, Coudray C, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Semino O, Bandelt HJ, Torroni A: The mtDNA legacy of the Levantine early Upper Palaeolithic in Africa. Science 2006;314:1767–1770.
  33. Quintana-Murci L, Bigham A, Rouba H, Barakat A, McElreavey K, Hammer M: Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in Berber and Arabic-speaking populations from Morocco. Forensic Sci Int 2004;140:113–115.
  34. Manni F, Leonardi P, Barakat A, Rouba H, Heyer E, Klintschar M, McElreavey K, Quintana-Murci L: Y-chromosome analysis in Egypt suggests a genetic regional continuity in Northeastern Africa. Hum Biol 2002;74:645–658.
  35. Abdin L, Dewa K, Rand S, Hohoff C, Brinkmann B: Analysis of 13 Y-chromosomal STRs in an Arab population sample from Syria. Prog Forensic Genet 2003;1239:319–321.
  36. Brinkmann C, Forster P, Schürenkamp M, Horst J, Rolf B, Brinkmann B: Human Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a Kurdish population sample. Int J Legal Med 1999;112:181–183.
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