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Vol. 55, No. 3, 2009
Issue release date: May 2009
Section title: Experimental Section
Free Access
Gerontology 2009;55:307–313
(DOI:10.1159/000215589)

Update on Slow Aging and Negligible Senescence – A Mini-Review

Finch C.E.
Davis School of Gerontology and the USC College Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif., USA
email Corresponding Author

Abstract

This review updates developments of the concept of negligible senescence, proposed in Longevity, Senescence, and the Genome in 1990, with new information for turtles, rockfish, and the naked mole-rat. However, centenarians certainly do not show negligible senescence.

© 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel


  

Key Words

  • Negligible senescence
  • Turtles
  • Rockfish
  • Naked mole-rat
  • Centenarians

References

  1. Finch CE: Longevity, Senescence, and the Genome. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1990.
  2. Comfort A: The Biology of Senescence. London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1964.
  3. Comfort A: The Biology of Senescence, ed 2. New York, Elsevier, 1964.
  4. Comfort A: The Biology of Senescence, ed 3. New York, Elsevier, 1979.
  5. Finch CE, Pike MC, Witten M: Slow mortality rate accelerations during aging in some animals approximate that of humans. Science 1990;249:902–905.
  6. Finch CE, Pike MC: Maximum life span predictions from the Gompertz mortality model. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1996;51:B183–B194.
  7. Hamilton WD: The moulding of senescence by natural selection. J Theor Biol 1966;12:12–45.
  8. Charlesworth B: Evolution in Age Structured Populations. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1994.
  9. Rose MR, Rauser CL, Benford G, Matos M, Mueller LD: Hamilton’s forces of natural selection after forty years. Evolution 2007;61:1265–1276.

    External Resources

  10. Rose MR, Charlesworth B: Genetics of life history in Drosophila melanogaster. II. Exploratory selection experiments. Genetics 1981;97:187–196.
  11. Sgrò CM, Geddes G, Fowler K, Partridge L: Selection on age at reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster: female mating frequency as a correlated response. Evolution 2000;54:2152–2155.
  12. Rose MR: Making SENSE: strategies for engineering negligible senescence evolutionarily. Rejuvenation Res 2008;11:527–534.
  13. Nusbaum TJ, Mueller LD, Rose MR: Evolutionary patterns among measures of aging. Exp Gerontol 1996;31:507–516.
  14. Austad SN, Finch CE, Finch CE (eds): Proceedings Issue: Symposium on Slowly Aging Organisms (SOSA-1). Exp Gerontol 2001;36:591–934.
  15. Ottinger MA, Ricklefs RE, Finch CE (eds): Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium on Organisms with Slow Aging (SOSA-2). Exp Gerontol 2003;38:721–813.

    External Resources

  16. Finch CE: Variations in senescence and longevity include the possibility of negligible senescence. J Gerontol 1998;53A:B235–B239.
  17. Vaupel JW, Baudisch A, Dölling M, Roach DA, Gampe J: The case for negative senescence. Theor Popul Biol 2004;65:339–351.
  18. Baudisch A: Hamilton’s indicators of the force of selection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005;102:8263–8268.
  19. Baudisch A: Inevitable aging? Contributions to Evolutionary-Demographic Theory. Berlin, Springer, 2008.
  20. Congdon JD, Nagle RD, Kinney OM, van Loben Sels RC: Hypotheses of aging in a long-lived vertebrate, Blanding’s turtle (Emydoidea blandingii). Exp Gerontol 2001;36:813–827.
  21. Congdon JD, Nagle RD, Kinney OM, van Loben Sels RC, Quinter T, Tinkle DW: Testing hypotheses of aging in long-lived painted turtles (Chrysomys picta). Exp Gerontol 2003;38:765–772.
  22. Congdon JD, Keinath DA: Blanding’s turtle (Emydoidea blandingii). A Technical Conservation Assessment. Prepared for the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Species Conservation Project, July 20, 2006.
  23. Cailliet GM, Andrews AH, Burton EJ, Watters DL, Kline DE, Ferry-Graham LA: Age determination and validation studies of marine fishes: do deep-dwellers live longer? Exp Gerontol 2001;36:739–764.
  24. Munk KM: Maximum ages of groundfishes in waters off Alaska and British Columbia and considerations of age determination. Alaska Fish Res Bull 2001;8:12–21.
  25. deBruin JP, Gosden RG, Finch CE, Leaman BM: Oocytes, follicles, and aging in two species of long-lived rockfish, Sebastes aleutianus and S. alutus. Biol Reprod 2004;71:1036–1042.
  26. Sogard SM, Berkeley SA, Fisher R: Maternal effects in rockfishes Sebastes spp: a comparison among species. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 2008;360:227–236.

    External Resources

  27. Berkeley SA, Chapman C, Sogard SM: Maternal age as a determinant of larval growth and survival in a marine fish, Sebastes melanops. Ecology 2004;85:1258–1264.

    External Resources

  28. Guerin JC: Emerging area of aging research: long-lived animals with ‘negligible senescence’. Ann NY Acad Sci 2004;1019:518–520.
  29. Morato T, Watson R, Pitcher TJ, Pauly D: Fishing down the deep. Fish Fisheries 2006;7:24–34.

    External Resources

  30. Buffenstein R: Negligible senescence in the longest living rodent, the naked mole-rat: insights from a successfully aging species. J Comp Physiol B 2008;178:439–445.
  31. Hulbert AJ, Pamplona R, Buffenstein R, Buttemer WA: Life and death: metabolic rate, membrane composition, and life span of animals. Physiol Rev 2007;87:1175–1213.
  32. Pérez VI, Buffenstein R, Masamsetti V, Leonard S, Salmon AB, Mele J, Andziak B, Yang T, Edrey Y, Friguet B, Ward W, Richardson A, Chaudhuri A: Protein stability and resistance to oxidative stress are determinants of longevity in the longest-living rodent, the naked mole-rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2009;106:3059–3064.
  33. Ungvari Z, Buffenstein R, Austad SN, Podlutsky A, Kaley G, Csiszar A: Oxidative stress in vascular senescence: lessons from successfully aging species. Front Biosci 2008;13:5056–5070.
  34. Finch CE: Lipids and lifespans: constants and contradictions. Exp Gerontol 2008;43:716–717.
  35. Sherman PW, Jarvis JUM: Extraordinary life spans of naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber). J Zool Lond 2002;258:307–311.
  36. Salmon AB, Sadighi Akha AA, Buffenstein R, Miller RA: Fibroblasts from naked mole-rats are resistant to multiple forms of cell injury, but sensitive to peroxide, ultraviolet light, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2008;63:232–241.
  37. Jeune B, Robine JM, Young R, Desjardins B, Skytthe A, Vaupel JW: Jeanne Calment and her successors. Biographical notes on the longest living humans; in Maier H, Gampe J, Jeune B, Robine JM, Vaupel JW (eds): Supercentenarians. Berlin, Springer, 2009, in press.
  38. GRG table of worldwide Validated Supercentenarians http://www.grg.org/Adams/E.HTM
  39. Franceschi C, Motta L, Motta M, Malaguarnera M, Capri M, Vasto S, Candore G, Caruso C; IMUSCE: The extreme longevity: the state of the art in Italy. Exp Gerontol 2008;43:45–52.
  40. Barzilai N, Atzmon G, Derby CA, Bauman JM, Lipton RB: A genotype of exceptional longevity is associated with preservation of cognitive function. Neurology 2006;67:2170–2175.
  41. Robine JM, Vaupel JW: Supercentenarians: slower ageing individuals or senile elderly. Exp Gerontol 2001;36:915–930.
  42. Gavrilov LA, Gavrilova NS: Mortality measurement at advanced ages: a study of the social security administration death master file. Society of Actuaries, 2008. Online monograph. http://www.soa.org/library/monographs/retirement-systems/living-to-100-and-beyond/2008/january/mono-li08–4b-gavrilov.pdf.
  43. Vaupel JW, Carey JR, Christensen K, Johnson TE, Yashin AI, Holm NV, Iachine IA, Kannisto V, Khazaeli AA, Liedo P, Longo VD, Zeng Y, Manton KG, Curtsinger JW: Biodemographic trajectories of longevity. Science 1998;280:855–860.
  44. de Magalhães JP, Sedivy JM, Finch CE, Austad SN, Church GM: A proposal to sequence genomes of unique interest for research on aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2007;62:583–584.

    External Resources

  45. de Grey AD: Rejuvenation research in 2007. Rejuvenation Res 2008;11:837–839.
  46. de Grey AD: Consolidating the mission to defeat aging: a big step forward. Rejuvenation Res 2008;11:1061–1063.
  47. Finch CE: The Biology of Human Longevity. Inflammation, Nutrition, and Aging in the Evolution of Lifespans. Burlington, Academic Press, 2007.
  48. Finch CE, Crimmins EM: Inflammatory exposure and historical changes in human life spans. Science 2004;305:1736–1739.
  49. Crimmins EM, Finch CE: Infection, inflammation, height, and longevity. PNAS 2006;103:498–503.
  50. Crimmins EM, Drevenstedt GL, Finch CE: The evolution of the mortality curve: Changes in the age of minimum mortality. Population Assoc Am Abstract, 2007. http://paa 2007.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.aspx? submissionID=71579.

  

Author Contacts

Caleb E. Finch
Andrus Gerontology Center, USC
3715 McClintock Ave.
Los Angeles, CA 90089-0191 (USA)
Tel. +1 213 740 1756, Fax +1 213 740 0853, E-Mail cefinch@usc.edu

  

Article Information

Received: December 29, 2008
Accepted: February 25, 2009
Published online: May 13, 2009
Number of Print Pages : 7
Number of Figures : 0, Number of Tables : 0, Number of References : 50

  

Publication Details

Gerontology (International Journal of Experimental, Clinical, Behavioural and Technological Gerontology)

Vol. 55, No. 3, Year 2009 (Cover Date: May 2009)

Journal Editor: Wick G. (Innsbruck)
ISSN: 0304-324X (Print), eISSN: 1423-0003 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/GER


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References

  1. Finch CE: Longevity, Senescence, and the Genome. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1990.
  2. Comfort A: The Biology of Senescence. London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1964.
  3. Comfort A: The Biology of Senescence, ed 2. New York, Elsevier, 1964.
  4. Comfort A: The Biology of Senescence, ed 3. New York, Elsevier, 1979.
  5. Finch CE, Pike MC, Witten M: Slow mortality rate accelerations during aging in some animals approximate that of humans. Science 1990;249:902–905.
  6. Finch CE, Pike MC: Maximum life span predictions from the Gompertz mortality model. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1996;51:B183–B194.
  7. Hamilton WD: The moulding of senescence by natural selection. J Theor Biol 1966;12:12–45.
  8. Charlesworth B: Evolution in Age Structured Populations. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1994.
  9. Rose MR, Rauser CL, Benford G, Matos M, Mueller LD: Hamilton’s forces of natural selection after forty years. Evolution 2007;61:1265–1276.

    External Resources

  10. Rose MR, Charlesworth B: Genetics of life history in Drosophila melanogaster. II. Exploratory selection experiments. Genetics 1981;97:187–196.
  11. Sgrò CM, Geddes G, Fowler K, Partridge L: Selection on age at reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster: female mating frequency as a correlated response. Evolution 2000;54:2152–2155.
  12. Rose MR: Making SENSE: strategies for engineering negligible senescence evolutionarily. Rejuvenation Res 2008;11:527–534.
  13. Nusbaum TJ, Mueller LD, Rose MR: Evolutionary patterns among measures of aging. Exp Gerontol 1996;31:507–516.
  14. Austad SN, Finch CE, Finch CE (eds): Proceedings Issue: Symposium on Slowly Aging Organisms (SOSA-1). Exp Gerontol 2001;36:591–934.
  15. Ottinger MA, Ricklefs RE, Finch CE (eds): Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium on Organisms with Slow Aging (SOSA-2). Exp Gerontol 2003;38:721–813.

    External Resources

  16. Finch CE: Variations in senescence and longevity include the possibility of negligible senescence. J Gerontol 1998;53A:B235–B239.
  17. Vaupel JW, Baudisch A, Dölling M, Roach DA, Gampe J: The case for negative senescence. Theor Popul Biol 2004;65:339–351.
  18. Baudisch A: Hamilton’s indicators of the force of selection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005;102:8263–8268.
  19. Baudisch A: Inevitable aging? Contributions to Evolutionary-Demographic Theory. Berlin, Springer, 2008.
  20. Congdon JD, Nagle RD, Kinney OM, van Loben Sels RC: Hypotheses of aging in a long-lived vertebrate, Blanding’s turtle (Emydoidea blandingii). Exp Gerontol 2001;36:813–827.
  21. Congdon JD, Nagle RD, Kinney OM, van Loben Sels RC, Quinter T, Tinkle DW: Testing hypotheses of aging in long-lived painted turtles (Chrysomys picta). Exp Gerontol 2003;38:765–772.
  22. Congdon JD, Keinath DA: Blanding’s turtle (Emydoidea blandingii). A Technical Conservation Assessment. Prepared for the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Species Conservation Project, July 20, 2006.
  23. Cailliet GM, Andrews AH, Burton EJ, Watters DL, Kline DE, Ferry-Graham LA: Age determination and validation studies of marine fishes: do deep-dwellers live longer? Exp Gerontol 2001;36:739–764.
  24. Munk KM: Maximum ages of groundfishes in waters off Alaska and British Columbia and considerations of age determination. Alaska Fish Res Bull 2001;8:12–21.
  25. deBruin JP, Gosden RG, Finch CE, Leaman BM: Oocytes, follicles, and aging in two species of long-lived rockfish, Sebastes aleutianus and S. alutus. Biol Reprod 2004;71:1036–1042.
  26. Sogard SM, Berkeley SA, Fisher R: Maternal effects in rockfishes Sebastes spp: a comparison among species. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 2008;360:227–236.

    External Resources

  27. Berkeley SA, Chapman C, Sogard SM: Maternal age as a determinant of larval growth and survival in a marine fish, Sebastes melanops. Ecology 2004;85:1258–1264.

    External Resources

  28. Guerin JC: Emerging area of aging research: long-lived animals with ‘negligible senescence’. Ann NY Acad Sci 2004;1019:518–520.
  29. Morato T, Watson R, Pitcher TJ, Pauly D: Fishing down the deep. Fish Fisheries 2006;7:24–34.

    External Resources

  30. Buffenstein R: Negligible senescence in the longest living rodent, the naked mole-rat: insights from a successfully aging species. J Comp Physiol B 2008;178:439–445.
  31. Hulbert AJ, Pamplona R, Buffenstein R, Buttemer WA: Life and death: metabolic rate, membrane composition, and life span of animals. Physiol Rev 2007;87:1175–1213.
  32. Pérez VI, Buffenstein R, Masamsetti V, Leonard S, Salmon AB, Mele J, Andziak B, Yang T, Edrey Y, Friguet B, Ward W, Richardson A, Chaudhuri A: Protein stability and resistance to oxidative stress are determinants of longevity in the longest-living rodent, the naked mole-rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2009;106:3059–3064.
  33. Ungvari Z, Buffenstein R, Austad SN, Podlutsky A, Kaley G, Csiszar A: Oxidative stress in vascular senescence: lessons from successfully aging species. Front Biosci 2008;13:5056–5070.
  34. Finch CE: Lipids and lifespans: constants and contradictions. Exp Gerontol 2008;43:716–717.
  35. Sherman PW, Jarvis JUM: Extraordinary life spans of naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber). J Zool Lond 2002;258:307–311.
  36. Salmon AB, Sadighi Akha AA, Buffenstein R, Miller RA: Fibroblasts from naked mole-rats are resistant to multiple forms of cell injury, but sensitive to peroxide, ultraviolet light, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2008;63:232–241.
  37. Jeune B, Robine JM, Young R, Desjardins B, Skytthe A, Vaupel JW: Jeanne Calment and her successors. Biographical notes on the longest living humans; in Maier H, Gampe J, Jeune B, Robine JM, Vaupel JW (eds): Supercentenarians. Berlin, Springer, 2009, in press.
  38. GRG table of worldwide Validated Supercentenarians http://www.grg.org/Adams/E.HTM
  39. Franceschi C, Motta L, Motta M, Malaguarnera M, Capri M, Vasto S, Candore G, Caruso C; IMUSCE: The extreme longevity: the state of the art in Italy. Exp Gerontol 2008;43:45–52.
  40. Barzilai N, Atzmon G, Derby CA, Bauman JM, Lipton RB: A genotype of exceptional longevity is associated with preservation of cognitive function. Neurology 2006;67:2170–2175.
  41. Robine JM, Vaupel JW: Supercentenarians: slower ageing individuals or senile elderly. Exp Gerontol 2001;36:915–930.
  42. Gavrilov LA, Gavrilova NS: Mortality measurement at advanced ages: a study of the social security administration death master file. Society of Actuaries, 2008. Online monograph. http://www.soa.org/library/monographs/retirement-systems/living-to-100-and-beyond/2008/january/mono-li08–4b-gavrilov.pdf.
  43. Vaupel JW, Carey JR, Christensen K, Johnson TE, Yashin AI, Holm NV, Iachine IA, Kannisto V, Khazaeli AA, Liedo P, Longo VD, Zeng Y, Manton KG, Curtsinger JW: Biodemographic trajectories of longevity. Science 1998;280:855–860.
  44. de Magalhães JP, Sedivy JM, Finch CE, Austad SN, Church GM: A proposal to sequence genomes of unique interest for research on aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2007;62:583–584.

    External Resources

  45. de Grey AD: Rejuvenation research in 2007. Rejuvenation Res 2008;11:837–839.
  46. de Grey AD: Consolidating the mission to defeat aging: a big step forward. Rejuvenation Res 2008;11:1061–1063.
  47. Finch CE: The Biology of Human Longevity. Inflammation, Nutrition, and Aging in the Evolution of Lifespans. Burlington, Academic Press, 2007.
  48. Finch CE, Crimmins EM: Inflammatory exposure and historical changes in human life spans. Science 2004;305:1736–1739.
  49. Crimmins EM, Finch CE: Infection, inflammation, height, and longevity. PNAS 2006;103:498–503.
  50. Crimmins EM, Drevenstedt GL, Finch CE: The evolution of the mortality curve: Changes in the age of minimum mortality. Population Assoc Am Abstract, 2007. http://paa 2007.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.aspx? submissionID=71579.