Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 15, No. 1, 2010
Issue release date: December 2009

Earlier Intervention Leads to Better Sound Localization in Children with Bilateral Cochlear Implants

Van Deun L. · van Wieringen A. · Scherf F. · Deggouj N. · Desloovere C. · Offeciers F.E. · Van de Heyning P.H. · Dhooge I.J. · Wouters J.
To view the fulltext, log in and/or choose pay-per-view option

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

We present sound localization results from 30 children with bilateral cochlear implants. All children received their implants sequentially, at ages from 6 months to 9 years for the first implant and 1.5–12 years for the second implant, with delays of 10 months to 9 years. Localization was measured in the sound field, with a broadband bell-ring presented from 1 of 9 loudspeakers positioned in the frontal horizontal plane. The majority of the children (63%) were able to localize this signal significantly better than chance level. Mean absolute error scores varied from 9 to 51° (root mean square error scores from 13 to 63°). The best scores were obtained by children who received their first implant before the age of 2 years and by children who used hearing aids prior to implantation for a period of 18 months or longer. Age at second implantation was important in the group of children who did not use a contralateral hearing aid during the unilateral implant period. Additionally, children who attended a mainstream school had significantly better localization scores than children who attended a school for the deaf. No other child or implantation variables were related to localization performance. Data of parent questionnaires derived from the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale were significantly correlated with localization performance. This study shows that the sound localization ability of children with bilateral cochlear implants varies across subjects, from near-normal to chance performance, and that stimulation early in life, acoustically or electrically, is important for the development of this capacity.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Ashmead DH, Davis DL, Whalen T, Odom RD: Sound localization and sensitivity to interaural time differences in human infants. Child Dev 1991;62:1211–1226.
  2. Baumgartner WD, Pok SM, Egelierler B, Franz P, Gstoettner W, Hamzavi J: The role of age in pediatric cochlear implantation. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2002;62:223–228.
  3. Beijen JW, Snik AF, Mylanus EA: Sound localization ability of young children with bilateral cochlear implants. Otol Neurotol 2007;28:479–485.
  4. Declaration of Helsinki. Adopted by the 18th World Medical Assembly, Helsinki, Finland, 1964 and revised by the 29th World Medical Assembly, Tokyo, Japan in 1975.
  5. Dunn CC, Tyler RS, Oakley S, Gantz BJ, Noble W: Comparison of speech recognition and localization performance in bilateral and unilateral cochlear implant users matched on duration of deafness and age at implantation. Ear Hear 2008;29:352–359.
  6. Galvin KL, Mok M, Dowell RC: Perceptual benefit and functional outcomes for children using sequential bilateral cochlear implants. Ear Hear 2007;28:470–482.
  7. Gatehouse S, Noble W: The Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ). Int J Audiol 2004;43:85–99.
  8. Geers AE, Nicholas JG, Sedey AL: Language skills of children with early cochlear implantation. Ear Hear 2003;24:S46–S58.
  9. Grantham DW, Ashmead DH, Ricketts TA, Labadie RF, Haynes DS: Horizontal-plane localization of noise and speech signals by postlingually deafened adults fitted with bilateral cochlear implants. Ear Hear 2007;28:524–541.
  10. Grieco-Calub TM, Litovsky RY, Werner LA: Using the observer-based psychophysical procedure to assess localization acuity in toddlers who use bilateral cochlear implants. Otol Neurotol 2008;29:235–239.
  11. Kuhn-Inacker H, Shehata-Dieler W, Müller J, Helms J: Bilateral cochlear implants: a way to optimize auditory perception abilities in deaf children? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2004;68:1257–1266.
  12. Laszig R, Aschendorff A, Stecker M, Müller-Deile J, Maune S, Dillier N, Weber B, Hey M, Begall K, Lenarz T, Battmer RD, Bohm M, Steffens T, Strutz J, Linder T, Probst R, Allum J, Westhofen M, Doering W: Benefits of bilateral electrical stimulation with the nucleus cochlear implant in adults: 6-month postoperative results. Otol Neurotol 2004;25:958–968.
  13. Litovsky RY, Johnstone PM, Godar S, Agrawal S, Parkinson A, Peters R, Lake J: Bilateral cochlear implants in children: localization acuity measured with minimum audible angle. Ear Hear 2006a;27:43–59.
  14. Litovsky RY, Johnstone PM, Godar SP: Benefits of bilateral cochlear implants and/or hearing aids in children. Int J Audiol 2006b;45(suppl 1):S78–S91.
  15. Litovsky RY, Parkinson A, Arcaroli J, Peters R, Lake J, Johnstone P, Yu GQ: Bilateral cochlear implants in adults and children. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2004;130:648–655.
  16. Morrongiello BA: Infants localization of sounds along the horizontal axis – estimates of minimum audible angle. Dev Psychol 1988;24:8–13.

    External Resources

  17. Neuman AC, Haravon A, Sislian N, Waltzman SB: Sound-direction identification with bilateral cochlear implants. Ear Hear 2007;28:73–82.
  18. Nopp P, Schleich P, D’Haese P: Sound localization in bilateral users of MED-EL COMBI 40/40+ cochlear implants. Ear Hear 2004;25:205–214.
  19. Peters BR, Litovsky R, Parkinson A, Lake J: Importance of age and postimplantation experience on speech perception measures in children with sequential bilateral cochlear implants. Otol Neurotol 2007;28:649–657.
  20. Scherf F, Van Deun L, van Wieringen A, Wouters J, Desloovere C, Dhooge I, Offeciers E, Deggouj N, De Raeve L, Wuyts FL, Van de Heyning PH: Three year post-implantation auditory outcomes in sequentially bilaterally implanted children. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2009, in press.
  21. Snik AF, Makhdoum MJ, Vermeulen AM, Brokx JP, van den Broek P: The relation between age at the time of cochlear implantation and long-term speech perception abilities in congenitally deaf subjects. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 1997;41:121–131.
  22. Steffens T, Lesinski-Schiedat A, Strutz J, Aschendorff A, Klenzner T, Ruhl S, Voss B, Wesarg T, Laszig R, Lenarz T: The benefits of sequential bilateral cochlear implantation for hearing-impaired children. Acta Otolaryngol 2008;128:164–176.
  23. Tyler RS, Dunn CC, Witt SA, Noble WG: Speech perception and localization with adults with bilateral sequential cochlear implants. Ear Hear 2007;28:S86–S90.
  24. Tyler RS, Teagle HF, Kelsay DM, Gantz BJ, Woodworth GG, Parkinson AJ: Speech perception by prelingually deaf children after six years of cochlear implant use: effects of age at implantation. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl 2000;185:82–84.
  25. Van den Bogaert T, Klasen TJ, Moonen M, Van Deun L, Wouters J: Horizontal localization with bilateral hearing aids: without is better than with. J Acoust Soc Am 2006;119:515–526.
  26. Van Deun L, van Wieringen A, Van den Bogaert T, Scherf F, Offeciers FE, Van de Heyning PH, Desloovere C, Dhooge IJ, Deggouj N, Wouters J: Sound localization, sound lateralization and binaural masking level differences in young children with normal hearing. Ear Hear 2009, in press.
  27. van Hoesel RJM, Tyler RS: Speech perception, localization, and lateralization with bilateral cochlear implants. J Acoust Soc Am 2003;113:1617–1630.
  28. Waltzman SB, Cohen NL, Gomolin RH, Shapiro WH, Ozdamar SR, Hoffman RA: Long-term results of early cochlear implantation in congenitally and prelingually deafened children. Am J Otol 1994;15(suppl 2):9–13.

    External Resources



Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50