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Vol. 73, No. 3, 2009
Issue release date: July 2009
Section title: Original Paper
Brain Behav Evol 2009;73:174–187
(DOI:10.1159/000222562)

Evolution of the Mauthner Axon Cap

Bierman H.S. · Zottoli S.J. · Hale M.E.
aCommittee on Neurobiology and bDepartment of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, Committee on Computational Neuroscience, University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., cDepartment of Biology, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., USA

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: 1/26/2009
Accepted: 3/18/2009
Published online: 6/3/2009

Number of Print Pages: 14
Number of Figures: 6
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 0006-8977 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9743 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/BBE

Abstract

Studies of vertebrate brain evolution have focused primarily on patterns of gene expression or changes in size and organization of major brain regions. The Mauthner cell, an important reticulospinal neuron that functions in the startle response of many species, provides an opportunity for evolutionary comparisons at the cellular level. Despite broad interspecific similarities in Mauthner cell morphology, the motor patterns and startle behaviors it initiates vary markedly. Response diversity has been hypothesized to result, in part, from differences in the structure and function of the Mauthner cell-associated axon cap. We used light microscopy techniques to compare axon cap morphology across a wide range of species, including all four extant basal actinopterygian orders, representatives of a variety of teleost lineages and lungfishes, and we combined our data with published descriptions of axon cap structure. The ‘composite’ axon cap, observed in teleosts, is an organized conglomeration of glia and fibers of inhibitory and excitatory interneurons. Lungfish, amphibian tadpoles and several basal actinopterygian fishes have ‘simple’ axon caps that appear to lack glia and include few fibers. Several other basal actinopterygian fishes have ‘simple-dense’ caps that include greater numbers of fibers than simple caps, but lack the additional elements and organization of composite caps. Phylogenetic mapping shows that through evolution there are discrete transitions in axon cap morphology occurring at the base of gnathostomes, within basal actinopterygians, and at the base of the teleost radiation. Comparing axon cap evolution to the evolution of startle behavior and motor pattern provides insight into the relationship between Mauthner cell-associated structures and their functions in behavior.


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: 1/26/2009
Accepted: 3/18/2009
Published online: 6/3/2009

Number of Print Pages: 14
Number of Figures: 6
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 0006-8977 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9743 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/BBE


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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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