Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 27, No. 6, 2009
Issue release date: July 2009
Section title: Original Research Article
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2009;27:548–556
(DOI:10.1159/000227781)

Education, Occupation, and Dementia: The Bavarian School Sisters Study

Bickel H. · Kurz A.
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität München, München, Germany

Do you have an account?

Register and profit from personalized services (MyKarger) Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information









I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

Register and profit from personalized services (MyKarger) Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information









I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger (new!)
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
  • Reduced rates with a PPV account
read more

Direct: USD 38.00
Account: USD 26.50

Select

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restriction apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00

Select

Subscribe

  • Automatic perpetual access to all articles of the subscribed year(s)
  • Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Subcription rates


Select


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Research Article

Accepted: 4/17/2009
Published online: 7/8/2009

Number of Print Pages: 9
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 6

ISSN: 1420-8008 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9824 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/DEM

Abstract

Background/Aims: An inverse association of educational level with the occurrence of dementia has been repeatedly demonstrated. The mechanism of this relationship is not yet clear. Studies on populations with different educational and occupational levels but uniform living conditions throughout adult life may serve as a natural experiment and may help to rule out lifestyle and environmental factors as possible explanations. Methods: We studied the relationship of education, occupational training, and appointment to a leading position with dementia in a cross-sectional study of older female members of a religious order. Results: Out of 517 eligible sisters, 442 (85.5%) with an average of 54 years membership in the order participated in the study, among which 104 cases of dementia were identified. We found a strong association of low educational and occupational attainment with dementia. The increased risk of dementia was attributable to sisters being poorly educated (age-adjusted OR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.0–9.9), not having received any vocational training (OR = 9.1; 95% CI: 3.9–20.9), and never having been appointed to a leading position (OR = 3.7; 95% CI: 2.0–7.0). Conclusion: In a setting which largely excludes the influence of lifestyle and environmental factors, we observed a strong association between educational variables and dementia. Our findings support the hypothesis of a reserve capacity against the consequences of brain diseases.


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Research Article

Accepted: 4/17/2009
Published online: 7/8/2009

Number of Print Pages: 9
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 6

ISSN: 1420-8008 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9824 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/DEM


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.