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Vol. 24, No. 1-2, 2009
Issue release date: 2009
Cell Physiol Biochem 2009;24:73–86
(DOI:10.1159/000227815)

Cardiac Myocytes Derived from Murine Reprogrammed Fibroblasts: Intact Hormonal Regulation, Cardiac Ion Channel Expression and Development of Contractility

Pfannkuche K.1,* · Liang H.1,* · Hannes T.2,* · Xi J.1,* · Fatima A.1 · Nguemo F.1 · Matzkies M.1 · Wernig M.4 · Jaenisch R.4,5 · Pillekamp F.2 · Halbach M.1 · Schunkert H.3 · Šaric T.1,# · Hescheler J.1,# · Reppel M.1,3,#
1Institute for Neurophysiology, University of Cologne,2Pediatric Cardiology, University of Cologne,3Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Lübeck,4Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research and5Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts,*Authors contributed equally to the manuscript,#corresponding authors
email Corresponding Author

Abstract

Aims: Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have a developmental potential similar to that of blastocyst-derived embryonic stem (ES) cells and may serve as an autologous source of cells for tissue repair, in vitro disease modelling and toxicity assays. Here we aimed at generating iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) and comparing their molecular and functional characteristics with CMs derived from native murine ES cells. Methods and Results: Beating cardiomyocytes were generated using a mass culture system from murine N10 and O9 iPS cells as well as R1 and D3 ES cells. Transcripts of the mesoderm specification factor T-brachyury and non-atrial cardiac specific genes were expressed in differentiating iPS EBs. Using immunocytochemistry to determine the expression and intracellular organisation of cardiac specific structural proteins we demonstrate strong similarity between iPS-CMs and ES-CMs. In line with a previous study electrophysiological analyses showed that hormonal response to β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptor stimulation was intact. Action potential (AP) recordings suggested that most iPS-CMs measured up to day 23 of differentiation are of ventricular-like type. Application of lidocaine, Cs+, SEA0400 and verapamil+ nifedipine to plated iPS-EBs during multi-electrode array (MEA) measurements of extracellular field potentials and intracellular sharp electrode recordings of APs revealed the presence of INa, If, INCX, and ICaL, respectively, and suggested their involvement in cardiac pacemaking, with ICaL being of major importance. Furthermore, iPS-CMs developed and conferred force to avitalized ventricular tissue that was responsive to β-adrenergic stimulation. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that the cardiogenic potential of iPS cells is comparable to that of ES cells and that iPS-CMs possess all fundamental functional elements of a typical cardiac cell, including spontaneous beating, hormonal regulation, cardiac ion channel expression and contractility. Therefore, iPS-CMs can be regarded as a potentially valuable source of cells for in vitro studies and cellular cardiomyoplasty.


 Outline


 goto top of outline Key Words

  • Reprogramming
  • Pluripotency
  • Cardiomyocytes
  • Stem Cells
  • iPS

 goto top of outline Abstract

Aims: Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have a developmental potential similar to that of blastocyst-derived embryonic stem (ES) cells and may serve as an autologous source of cells for tissue repair, in vitro disease modelling and toxicity assays. Here we aimed at generating iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) and comparing their molecular and functional characteristics with CMs derived from native murine ES cells. Methods and Results: Beating cardiomyocytes were generated using a mass culture system from murine N10 and O9 iPS cells as well as R1 and D3 ES cells. Transcripts of the mesoderm specification factor T-brachyury and non-atrial cardiac specific genes were expressed in differentiating iPS EBs. Using immunocytochemistry to determine the expression and intracellular organisation of cardiac specific structural proteins we demonstrate strong similarity between iPS-CMs and ES-CMs. In line with a previous study electrophysiological analyses showed that hormonal response to β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptor stimulation was intact. Action potential (AP) recordings suggested that most iPS-CMs measured up to day 23 of differentiation are of ventricular-like type. Application of lidocaine, Cs+, SEA0400 and verapamil+ nifedipine to plated iPS-EBs during multi-electrode array (MEA) measurements of extracellular field potentials and intracellular sharp electrode recordings of APs revealed the presence of INa, If, INCX, and ICaL, respectively, and suggested their involvement in cardiac pacemaking, with ICaL being of major importance. Furthermore, iPS-CMs developed and conferred force to avitalized ventricular tissue that was responsive to β-adrenergic stimulation. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that the cardiogenic potential of iPS cells is comparable to that of ES cells and that iPS-CMs possess all fundamental functional elements of a typical cardiac cell, including spontaneous beating, hormonal regulation, cardiac ion channel expression and contractility. Therefore, iPS-CMs can be regarded as a potentially valuable source of cells for in vitro studies and cellular cardiomyoplasty.

Copyright © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel


 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Jürgen Hescheler, Tomo Saric, Michael Reppel
Institut für Neurophysiologie, Universität zu Köln
Robert-Koch-Str. 39, 50931 Köln (Germany)
Tel. +49-221-4786960, Fax +49-221-4783834, E-Mail j.hescheler@uni-koeln.de
E-Mail tomo.saric@uni-koeln.de, E-Mail michael.reppel@uni-koeln.de


 goto top of outline Article Information

Accepted: April 28, 2009
Published online: July 01, 2009
Number of Print Pages : 14


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry (International Journal of Experimental Cellular Physiology, Biochemistry andPharmacology)

Vol. 24, No. 1-2, Year 2009 (Cover Date: 2009)

Journal Editor: F. Lang, Tübingen
ISSN: 1015–8987 (Print), eISSN: 1421–9778 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/journals/cpb


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Abstract

Aims: Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have a developmental potential similar to that of blastocyst-derived embryonic stem (ES) cells and may serve as an autologous source of cells for tissue repair, in vitro disease modelling and toxicity assays. Here we aimed at generating iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) and comparing their molecular and functional characteristics with CMs derived from native murine ES cells. Methods and Results: Beating cardiomyocytes were generated using a mass culture system from murine N10 and O9 iPS cells as well as R1 and D3 ES cells. Transcripts of the mesoderm specification factor T-brachyury and non-atrial cardiac specific genes were expressed in differentiating iPS EBs. Using immunocytochemistry to determine the expression and intracellular organisation of cardiac specific structural proteins we demonstrate strong similarity between iPS-CMs and ES-CMs. In line with a previous study electrophysiological analyses showed that hormonal response to β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptor stimulation was intact. Action potential (AP) recordings suggested that most iPS-CMs measured up to day 23 of differentiation are of ventricular-like type. Application of lidocaine, Cs+, SEA0400 and verapamil+ nifedipine to plated iPS-EBs during multi-electrode array (MEA) measurements of extracellular field potentials and intracellular sharp electrode recordings of APs revealed the presence of INa, If, INCX, and ICaL, respectively, and suggested their involvement in cardiac pacemaking, with ICaL being of major importance. Furthermore, iPS-CMs developed and conferred force to avitalized ventricular tissue that was responsive to β-adrenergic stimulation. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that the cardiogenic potential of iPS cells is comparable to that of ES cells and that iPS-CMs possess all fundamental functional elements of a typical cardiac cell, including spontaneous beating, hormonal regulation, cardiac ion channel expression and contractility. Therefore, iPS-CMs can be regarded as a potentially valuable source of cells for in vitro studies and cellular cardiomyoplasty.



 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Jürgen Hescheler, Tomo Saric, Michael Reppel
Institut für Neurophysiologie, Universität zu Köln
Robert-Koch-Str. 39, 50931 Köln (Germany)
Tel. +49-221-4786960, Fax +49-221-4783834, E-Mail j.hescheler@uni-koeln.de
E-Mail tomo.saric@uni-koeln.de, E-Mail michael.reppel@uni-koeln.de


 goto top of outline Article Information

Accepted: April 28, 2009
Published online: July 01, 2009
Number of Print Pages : 14


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry (International Journal of Experimental Cellular Physiology, Biochemistry andPharmacology)

Vol. 24, No. 1-2, Year 2009 (Cover Date: 2009)

Journal Editor: F. Lang, Tübingen
ISSN: 1015–8987 (Print), eISSN: 1421–9778 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/journals/cpb


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.