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Vol. 2, No. 2, 2010
Issue release date: February 2010
Editor's Choice -- Free Access
J Innate Immun 2010;2:114–122
(DOI:10.1159/000228159)

Mannose-Binding Lectin Deficiency and Respiratory Tract Infection

Eisen D.P.
Victorian Infectious Diseases Service, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Vic., Australia
email Corresponding Author

Abstract

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is an innate immune system pattern recognition protein that kills a wide range of pathogenic microbes through complement activation. A substantial proportion of all human populations studied to date have MBL deficiency due to MBL2 polymorphisms, which potentially increases susceptibility to infectious disease. MBL binds numerous respiratory pathogens but the capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae abrogates its efficient binding. Clinical studies in humans have shown that MBL deficiency appears to predispose to severe respiratory tract infection. A recent meta-analysis shows that MBL deficiency was associated with death in patients with pneumococcal infection after adjusting for bacteraemia and comorbidities. Human clinical studies have also shown associations between MBL deficiency and various less common respiratory infections. Intracellular infections like tuberculosis may be less common with MBL deficiency because of reduced opsonophagocytosis. Lung secretions contain small amounts of MBL that are potentially sufficient to activate complement, but their measurement is confounded by dilution inherent in collection techniques. Therefore, if this protein does play a role in pulmonary immunity it is presumably through prevention of haematogenous dissemination of respiratory pathogens while adding to mucosal defences. Ficolins are collectins that are structurally and functionally related to MBL and are either present in serum or expressed in tissues including the lung. Limited variation in serum levels of L- and H-ficolin result from the presence of FCN2 and FCN3 polymorphisms. Initial studies on the impact of FCN2 polymorphisms or low L-ficolin levels do not seem to show major associations with respiratory infection. MBL is being developed as a new immunotherapeutic agent for prevention of infection in immunocompromised hosts. The available literature suggests that it may also be of benefit in MBL deficient patients with severe pneumonia. This review concentrates on clinical associations between MBL deficiency and susceptibility to respiratory tract infection.


 goto top of outline Key Words

  • Complement system
  • Infectious diseases
  • Innate immunity
  • Lectins
  • Lung
  • Mannose-binding lectin
  • Pneumococcus
  • Pneumonia
  • Sepsis

 goto top of outline Abstract

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is an innate immune system pattern recognition protein that kills a wide range of pathogenic microbes through complement activation. A substantial proportion of all human populations studied to date have MBL deficiency due to MBL2 polymorphisms, which potentially increases susceptibility to infectious disease. MBL binds numerous respiratory pathogens but the capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae abrogates its efficient binding. Clinical studies in humans have shown that MBL deficiency appears to predispose to severe respiratory tract infection. A recent meta-analysis shows that MBL deficiency was associated with death in patients with pneumococcal infection after adjusting for bacteraemia and comorbidities. Human clinical studies have also shown associations between MBL deficiency and various less common respiratory infections. Intracellular infections like tuberculosis may be less common with MBL deficiency because of reduced opsonophagocytosis. Lung secretions contain small amounts of MBL that are potentially sufficient to activate complement, but their measurement is confounded by dilution inherent in collection techniques. Therefore, if this protein does play a role in pulmonary immunity it is presumably through prevention of haematogenous dissemination of respiratory pathogens while adding to mucosal defences. Ficolins are collectins that are structurally and functionally related to MBL and are either present in serum or expressed in tissues including the lung. Limited variation in serum levels of L- and H-ficolin result from the presence of FCN2 and FCN3 polymorphisms. Initial studies on the impact of FCN2 polymorphisms or low L-ficolin levels do not seem to show major associations with respiratory infection. MBL is being developed as a new immunotherapeutic agent for prevention of infection in immunocompromised hosts. The available literature suggests that it may also be of benefit in MBL deficient patients with severe pneumonia. This review concentrates on clinical associations between MBL deficiency and susceptibility to respiratory tract infection.

Copyright © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel


 goto top of outline References
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 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Dr. Damon P. Eisen
Victorian Infectious Diseases Service
Royal Melbourne Hospital
Grattan St, Parkville, Victoria, VIC 3050 (Australia)
Tel. +61 3 9342 7212, Fax +61 3 9342 7277, E-Mail damon.eisen@mh.org.au


 goto top of outline Article Information

Received: October 21, 2008
Accepted after revision: December 3, 2008
Published online: July 7, 2009
Number of Print Pages : 9
Number of Figures : 1, Number of Tables : 1, Number of References : 80


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Journal of Innate Immunity

Vol. 2, No. 2, Year 2010 (Cover Date: February 2010)

Journal Editor: Herwald H. (Lund), Egesten A. (Lund)
ISSN: 1662-811X (Print), eISSN: 1662-8128 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/JIN


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Abstract

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is an innate immune system pattern recognition protein that kills a wide range of pathogenic microbes through complement activation. A substantial proportion of all human populations studied to date have MBL deficiency due to MBL2 polymorphisms, which potentially increases susceptibility to infectious disease. MBL binds numerous respiratory pathogens but the capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae abrogates its efficient binding. Clinical studies in humans have shown that MBL deficiency appears to predispose to severe respiratory tract infection. A recent meta-analysis shows that MBL deficiency was associated with death in patients with pneumococcal infection after adjusting for bacteraemia and comorbidities. Human clinical studies have also shown associations between MBL deficiency and various less common respiratory infections. Intracellular infections like tuberculosis may be less common with MBL deficiency because of reduced opsonophagocytosis. Lung secretions contain small amounts of MBL that are potentially sufficient to activate complement, but their measurement is confounded by dilution inherent in collection techniques. Therefore, if this protein does play a role in pulmonary immunity it is presumably through prevention of haematogenous dissemination of respiratory pathogens while adding to mucosal defences. Ficolins are collectins that are structurally and functionally related to MBL and are either present in serum or expressed in tissues including the lung. Limited variation in serum levels of L- and H-ficolin result from the presence of FCN2 and FCN3 polymorphisms. Initial studies on the impact of FCN2 polymorphisms or low L-ficolin levels do not seem to show major associations with respiratory infection. MBL is being developed as a new immunotherapeutic agent for prevention of infection in immunocompromised hosts. The available literature suggests that it may also be of benefit in MBL deficient patients with severe pneumonia. This review concentrates on clinical associations between MBL deficiency and susceptibility to respiratory tract infection.



 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Dr. Damon P. Eisen
Victorian Infectious Diseases Service
Royal Melbourne Hospital
Grattan St, Parkville, Victoria, VIC 3050 (Australia)
Tel. +61 3 9342 7212, Fax +61 3 9342 7277, E-Mail damon.eisen@mh.org.au


 goto top of outline Article Information

Received: October 21, 2008
Accepted after revision: December 3, 2008
Published online: July 7, 2009
Number of Print Pages : 9
Number of Figures : 1, Number of Tables : 1, Number of References : 80


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Journal of Innate Immunity

Vol. 2, No. 2, Year 2010 (Cover Date: February 2010)

Journal Editor: Herwald H. (Lund), Egesten A. (Lund)
ISSN: 1662-811X (Print), eISSN: 1662-8128 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/JIN


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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