Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 125, No. 3, 2009
Issue release date: September 2009

Karyological Characterization of the Butterfly Lizard (Leiolepis reevesii rubritaeniata, Agamidae, Squamata) by Molecular Cytogenetic Approach

Srikulnath K. · Matsubara K. · Uno Y. · Thongpan A. · Suputtitada S. · Apisitwanich S. · Matsuda Y. · Nishida C.
To view the fulltext, log in and/or choose pay-per-view option

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

Karyological characterization of the butterfly lizard (Leiolepis reevesii rubritaeniata) was performed by conventional Giemsa staining, Ag-NOR banding, FISH with the 18S-28S and 5S rRNA genes and telomeric (TTAGGG)n sequences, and CGH. The karyotype was composed of 2 distinct components, macrochromosomes and microchromosomes, and the chromosomal constitution was 2n = 2x = 36 (L4m + L2sm + M2m + S4m + 24 microchromosomes). NORs and the 18S-28S rRNA genes were located at the secondary constriction of the long arm of chromosome 1, and the 5S rRNA genes were localized to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 6. Hybridization signals of (TTAGGG)n sequences were observed at the telomeric ends of all chromosomes and interstitially at the same position as the 18S-28S rRNA genes, suggesting that in the Leiolepinae tandem fusion probably occurred between chromosome 1 and a microchromosome where the 18S-28S rRNA genes were located. CGH analysis, however, failed to identify sex chromosomes, suggesting that this species may have a TSD system or exhibit GSD with morphologically undetectable cryptic sex chromosomes. Homologues of 6 chicken Z-linked genes (ACO1/IREBP, ATP5A1, CHD1, DMRT1, GHR, RPS6) were all mapped to chromosome 2p in the same order as on the snake chromosome 2p.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Abuin M, Martinez P, Sanchez L: Localization of the repetitive telomeric sequences (TTAGGG)n in four salmonid species. Genome 39:1035–1038 (1996).
  2. Aranyavalai V: Species diversity and habitat characteristics of butterfly lizards (Leiolepis spps.) in Thailand, Ph.D. thesis (Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 2003).
  3. Aranyavalai V, Thirakhupt K, Pariyanonth P, Chulalaksananukul W: Karyotype and unisexuality of Leiolepisboehmei Darevsky and Kupriyanova, 1993 (Sauria: Agamidae) from Southern Thailand. Nat Hist J Chulalongkorn Univ 4:15–19 (2004).
  4. Benton MJ, Donoghue PCJ: Paleontological evidence to date the tree of life. Mol Biol Evol 24:26–53 (2007).
  5. Darevsky IS, Kupriyanova LA: Two new all-female lizard species of the genus Leiolepis Cuvier, 1829 from Thailand and Vietnam. Herpetozoa 6:3–20 (1993).
  6. Delany ME, Krupkin AB: Molecular characterization of ribosomal gene variation within and among NORs segregating in specialized populations of chicken. Genome 42:60–71 (1999).
  7. Durica DS, Krider HM: Studies on the ribosomal RNA cistrons in interspecific Drosophila hybrids. Dev Biol 59:62–74 (1977).
  8. Ezaz T, Quinn AE, Miura I, Sarre SD, Georges A, Graves JAM: The dragon lizard Pogona vitticeps has ZZ/ZW micro-sex chromosomes. Chromosome Res 13:763–776 (2005).
  9. Ezaz T, Valenzuela N, Grützner F, Miura I, Georges A, et al: An XX/XY sex microchromosome system in a freshwater turtle, Chelodina longicollis (Testudines: Chelidae) with genetic sex determination. Chromosome Res 14:139–150 (2006).
  10. Fujiwara A, Abe S, Yamaha E, Yamazaki F, Yoshida MC: Chromosomal localization and heterochromatin association of ribosomal RNA gene loci and silver-stained nucleolar organizer regions in salmonid fishes. Chromosome Res 6:463–471 (1998).
  11. Go Y, Rakotoarisoa G, Kawamoto Y, Randrianjafy A, Koyama N, Hirai H: PRINS analysis of the telomeric sequence in seven lemurs. Chromosome Res 8:57–65 (2000).
  12. Gorman GC: The chromosomes of the Reptilia, a cytotaxonomic interpretation, in Chiarelli AB, Cappana E (eds): Cytotaxonomy and Vertebrate Evolution (Academic Press, New York 1973).
  13. Hall WP: Three probable cases of parthenogenesis in lizards (Agamidae, Chamaeleontidae, Gekkonidae). Experientia 26:1271–1273 (1970).
  14. Howell WM, Black DA: Controlled silver-staining of organizer regions with a protective colloidal developer: a 1-step method. Experientia 36:1014–1015 (1980).
  15. Imai HT, Matsuda Y, Shiroishi T, Moriwaki K: High frequency of X-Y chromosome dissociation in primary spermatocytes of F1 hybrids between Japanese wild mice (Musmusculus molossinus) and inbred laboratory mice. Cytogenet Cell Genet 29:166–175 (1981).
  16. International Chicken Genome Sequencing Consortium: Sequence and comparative analysis of the chicken genome provide unique perspectives on vertebrate evolution. Nature 432:695–716 (2004).
  17. ISCN (1995): An International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature, Mitelman F (ed) (S. Karger, Basel 1995).
  18. Itoh Y, Kampf K, Arnold AP: Comparison of the chicken and zebra finch Z chromosomes shows evolutionary rearrangements. Chromosome Res 14:805–815 (2006).
  19. Janke A, Erpenbeck D, Nilsson M, Arnason U: The mitochondrial genomes of the iguana (Iguana iguana) and the caiman (Caiman crocodylus) implications for amniote phylogeny. Proc R Soc Lond B 268:623–631 (2001).
  20. Kasahara S, Yonenaga-Yassuda Y, Rodrigues MT: Karyotype and evolution of the Tropidurus nanuzae species group (Sauria, Iguanidae). Rev Brasil Genet 2:185–197 (1987).
  21. Kawagoshi T, Nishida C, Ota H, Kumazawa Y, Endo H, Matsuda Y: Molecular structures of centromeric heterochromatin and karyotypic evolution in the Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) (Crocodylidae, Crocodylia). Chromosome Res 16:1119–1132 (2008).
  22. Kawai A, Nishida-Umehara C, Ishijima J, Tsuda Y, Ota H, Matsuda Y: Different origins of bird and reptile sex chromosomes inferred from comparative mapping of chicken Z-linked genes. Cytogenet Genome Res 117:92–102 (2007).
  23. Kawai A, Ishijima J, Nishida-Umehara C, Kosaka A, Ota H, et al: The ZW sex chromosomes of Gekko hokouensis (Gekkonidae, Squamata) represent highly conserved homology with those of avian species. Chromosoma 118:43–51 (2009).
  24. Kumar S, Hedges SB: A molecular timescale for vertebrate evolution. Nature 392:917–920 (1998).
  25. Kumazawa Y: Mitochondrial genomes from major lizard families suggest their phylogenetic relationships and ancient radiations. Gene 388:19–26 (2007).
  26. Kumazawa Y, Nishida M: Complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of the green turtle and blue-tailed mole skink: statistical evidence for Archosaurian affinity of turtles. Mol Biol Evol 16:784–792 (1999).
  27. Kupriyanova LA: Karyotypes of three species of the agamid lizards, in Borkin L (ed): Ecology and Faunistics of Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR and Adjacent Countries. Proceedings of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Leningrad, 1984).
  28. Kurihara Y, Suh DS, Suzuki H, Moriwaki K: Chromosomal location of Ag-NORs and clusters of ribosomal DNA in laboratory strains of mice. Mamm Genome 5:225–228 (1994).
  29. Levan A, Fredga K, Sandberg A: Nomenclature for centromeric position on chromosomes. Hereditas 52:201–220 (1964).

    External Resources

  30. Liu W-S, Fredga K: Telomeric (TTAGGG)n sequences are associated with nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in the wood lemming. Chromosome Res 7:235–240 (1999).
  31. Matsubara K, Tarui H, Toriba M, Yamada K, Nishida-Umehara C, et al: Evidence for different origin of sex chromosomes in snakes, birds, and mammals and step-wise differentiation of snake sex chromosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:18190–18195 (2006).
  32. Matsuda Y, Chapman VM: Application of fluorescence in situ hybridization in genome analysis of the mouse. Electrophoresis 16:261–272 (1995).
  33. Matsuda Y, Nishida-Umehara C, Tarui H, Kuroiwa A, Yamada K, et al: Highly conserved linkage homology between birds and turtles: Bird and turtle chromosomes are precise counterparts of each other. Chromosome Res 13:601–615 (2005).
  34. Meyne J, Baker RJ, Hobart HH, Hsu TC, Ryder OA, et al: Distribution of non-telomeric sites of the (TTAGGG)n telomeric sequences in vertebrate chromosomes. Chromosoma 99:3–10 (1990).
  35. Miller DA, Dev VG, Tantravahi R, Miller OJ: Suppression of human nucleolus organizer activity in mouse-human somatic hybrid cells. Exp Cell Res 101:235–243 (1976).
  36. Nanda I, Schmid M: Localization of the telomeric (TTAGGG)n sequence in chicken (Gallus domesticus) chromosomes. Cytogenet Cell Genet 65:190–193 (1994).
  37. Nanda I, Shan Z, Schartl M, Burt DW, Koehler M, et al: 300 million years of conserved synteny between chicken Z and human chromosome 9. Nat Genet 21:258–259 (1999).
  38. Nanda I, Haaf T, Schartl M, Schmid M, Burt DW: Comparative mapping of Z-orthologous genes in vertebrates: implications for the evolution of avian sex chromosomes. Cytogenet Genome Res 99:178–184 (2002a).
  39. Nanda I, Schrama D, Feichtinger W, Haaf T, Schartl M, Schmid M: Distribution of telomeric (TTAGGG)n sequences in avian chromosomes. Chromosoma 111:215–227 (2002b).
  40. Nishida-Umehara C, Tsuda Y, Ishijima J, Ando J, Fujiwara A, et al: The molecular basis of chromosome orthologies and sex chromosomal differentiation in palaeognathous birds. Chromosome Res 15:721–734 (2007).
  41. Olmo E: Reptilia, in John B (ed): Animal Cytogenetics, Vol. 4: Chordata 3. (Gebrüder Bornträger, Berlin 1986).
  42. Olmo E, Signorino G: Chromorep: a reptile chromosome database. (http://193.206.118. 100/professori/chromorep.pdf) (2005).
  43. Paull D, Williams EE, Hall WP: Lizard karyotypes from the Galapagos Islands: chromosomes in phylogeny and evolution. Breviora 441:1–31 (1976).
  44. Pellegrino KCM, Rodrigues MT, Yonenaga-Yassuda Y: Chromosomal evolution in the Brazilian lizards of genus Leposoma (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae) from Amazon and Atlantic rain forests: banding patterns and FISH of telomeric sequences. Hereditas 131:15–21 (1999).
  45. Peters VG: Die intragenerischen Gruppen und die Phylogenese der Schmetterlingsagamen (Agamidae: Leiolepis). Zool Jahrb Syst 98:11–152 (1971).
  46. Porter C, Hamilton MJ, Sites JR JW, Baker RJ: Location of ribosomal DNA in chromosomes of Squamate reptiles: systematic and evolutionary implications. Herpetologica 47:271–280 (1991).

    External Resources

  47. Reed KM, Phillips RB: Molecular cytogenetic analysis of the double-CMA3 chromosome of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush. Cytogenet Cell Genet 70:104–107 (1995).
  48. Salvadori S, Deiana A, Elisabetta C, Floridia G, Rossi E, Zuffardi O: Colocalization of (TTAGGG)n telomeric sequences and ribosomal genes in Atlantic eels. Chromosome Res 3:54–58 (1995).
  49. Satrawaha R, Tarpsipare P: A research report on distribution and population structure of Leiolepis belliana rubritaeniata (Mertens). (Khon Kaen University, Khon Khaen 1982).
  50. Schmid M, Feichtinger W, Nanda I, Schakowski R, Garcia RV, et al: An extraordinary low diploid chromosome number in the reptile Gonatodes taniae (Squamata, Gekkonidae). J Hered 85:255–260 (1994).
  51. Schmid M, Nanda I, Hoehn H, Schartl M, Haaf T, et al: Second report on chicken genes and chromosomes 2005. Cytogenet Genome Res 109:415–479 (2005).
  52. Shibusawa M, Nishibori M, Nishida-Umehara C, Tsudzuki M, Masabanda J, et al: Karyotypic evolution in the Galliformes: An examination of the process of karyotypic evolution by comparison of the molecular cytogenetic findings with the molecular phylogeny. Cytogenet Genome Res 106:111–119 (2004).
  53. Silva M, Pereira HS, Bento M, Santos AP, Shaw P, et al: Interplay of ribosomal DNA in nucleolar dominance: dominant NORs are up-regulated by chromatin dynamics in the wheat-rye system. PLoS ONE 3:e3824 (2008).
  54. Singh L: Evolution of karyotypes in snakes. Chromosoma 38:185–236 (1972).
  55. Sollender E, Schmid M: Cytogenetic studies on Sauria (Reptilia). I. Mitotic chromosome of the Agamidae. Amphibia-Reptilia 9:301–310 (1988).

    External Resources

  56. Tsuda Y, Nishida-Umehara C, Ishijima J, Yamada K, Matsuda Y: Comparison of the Z and W sex chromosomal architectures in elegant crested tinamou (Eudromia elegans) and ostrich (Struthio camelus) and the process of sex chromosome differentiation in palaeognathous birds. Chromosoma 116:159–173 (2007).
  57. Turpin R, Lejeune J: Les Chromosomes Humains (Gauthier-Villars, Paris 1965).


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50