Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 52, No. 4, 1999
Issue release date: March 2000
Horm Res 1999;52:161–170
(DOI:10.1159/000023456)

Aspects of Ovarian Follicle Development throughout Life

Macklon N.S. · Fauser B.C.J.M.
To view the fulltext, log in and/or choose pay-per-view option

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

The pool of primordial follicles present in the female ovary reaches its maximum number around 20 weeks of gestational age and then decreases in a logarithmic fashion throughout life until complete depletion occurs around the age of the menopause. Reproductive life is initiated when less than 10% (0.5 million) of primordial follicles are left. The entire growth trajectory of the follicle takes at least 3 months. Follicle growth up to the antral stage occurs during fetal life and infancy. While the role of gonadotropins in early follicular development remains controversial, the last 2 weeks of development are FSH dependent. The intercycle rise in FSH and decreasing levels thereafter are crucial for recruitment of a cohort of healthy, early antral follicles and subsequent single dominant selection. Following puberty, anovulation may persist for years and this may presage the development of adult anovulatory infertility. The menopause is preceded by a period of reduced fertility. The development of reliable and sensitive markers for ovarian ageing will be the challenge of the near future.

Copyright © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Baker TC: A quantitative and cytological study of germ cells in human ovaries. Proc Roy Soc [B] 1963;158:417–433.
  2. Forabasco A, Sforza C, de Pol A, Vizzotto L, Marzona L: Morphometric study of the human neonatal ovary. Anat Rec 1991;231:201–208.
  3. Himelstein-Braw R, Byskov AG, Peters H, Faber M: Follicular atresia in the infant human ovary. J Reprod Fertil 1976;46:455–459.

    External Resources

  4. Faddy MJ, Gosden RG, Gougeon A, Richardson SJ, Nelson JF: Accelerated disappearance of ovarian follicles in mid-life: Implications for forecasting menopause. Hum Reprod 1992;7:1342–1346.
  5. Schwartzman RA, Cidlowski J: Apoptosis: The biochemistry and molecular biology of programmed cell death. Endocr Rev 1993;14:133–151.
  6. Lintern-Moore S, Peters H, Moore GP, Faber M: Follicular development in the infant human ovary. J Reprod Fertil 1974;39:53–64

    External Resources

  7. Neely EK, Hintz RL, Wilson DM, Lee PL, Gautier T, Argente J, Stene M: Normal ranges for immunochemiluminometric gonadotropin assays. J Pediatr 1995;127:40–46.
  8. Klein K, Baron O, Colli MJ, McDonnell DP, Cutler GB Jr: Estrogen levels in childhood determined by an ultrasensitive recombinant cell bioassay. J Clin Invest 1994:2475–2480.
  9. Sauramo H: Histology and function of the ovary from the embryonic period to the fertile age. Acta Obstet Gynaecol Scand 1954;33:3–25.
  10. Winer-Muram H, Emerson D, Muram D, Boulden T: The sonographic features of the peripubertal ovaries. Adolesc Pediatr Gynecol 1989;2:160–163.
  11. Cacciatore B, Apter D, Alfthan H, Stenman UH: Ultrasonic characteristics of the uterus and ovaries in relation to pubertal development and serum LH, FSH and estradiol concentrations. Adolesc Pediatr Gynecol 1991;4:15–20.
  12. Hillier SG: Current concepts of the roles of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in folliculogenesis. Hum Reprod 1994;188–191.
  13. Holm K, Mosfeldt Laursen E, Brocks V, Müller J: Pubertal maturation of the internal genitalia: An ultrasound evaluation of 166 healthy girls. Ultrasound Obstet Gynaecol 1995;6:175–181.
  14. Penny R, Parlow F, Olambiwonnu NO, Frasier SD: Evolution of the menstrual pattern of gonadotropin and sex steroid concentrations in serum. Acta Endocrinol 1977;84:729–737.

    External Resources

  15. Apter D: Serum steroids and pituitary hormones in female puberty: A partly longitudinal study. Clin Endocrinol 1980;12:107–120.
  16. Apter D, Vihko R: Hormonal patterns of the first menstrual cycles; in Venturoli S, Flamigni C, Givens JR (eds): Adolescence in Females. Chicago, Year Book, 1985, pp 215–238.
  17. Apter D, Vihko R: Endocrine determinants of fertility: Serum androgen concentrations during follow-up of adolescents into the third decade of life. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990;71:970–974.
  18. Metcalf MG, Skidmore DS, Lowry GF, Mackenzie JA: Incidence of ovulation in the years after the menarche. J Endocr 1983;97:213–219.
  19. Apter D, Bützow T, Laughlin GA, Yen SSC: Metabolic features of polycystic ovary syndrome are found in adolescent girls with hyperandrogenism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995;80:2966–2973.
  20. Poretsky L: Insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism: Update. Endocr Rev 1994;2:125–129.
  21. Nestler JE, Clore JN, Blackard WG: The central role of obesity (hyperinsulinaemia) in the pathogenesis of the polycystic ovary syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynaecol 1989;161:1095–1097.
  22. Pasquali R, Casimirri F: The impact of obesity on hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary syndrome in premenopausal women. Clin Endocrinol 1993;39:1–16.
  23. Gougeon A: Dynamics of follicular growth in the human: A model from preliminary results. Hum Reprod 1986;1:81–87.
  24. Channing CP, Kammerman S: Characteristics of gonadotropin receptors of porcine granulosa cells during follicle maturation. Endocrinology 1973;92:531–540.

    External Resources

  25. Gougeon A: Dynamics of human follicle growth: A morphologic perspective; in Adashi EY, Leung PCK (eds): The Ovary. New York, Raven Press, 1993, pp 21–39.
  26. Oktay K, Briggs D, Gosden RG: Ontogeny of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene expression in isolated human ovarian follicles. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:3748–3751.
  27. Gougeon A: Regulation of ovarian follicular development in primates: Facts and hypothesis. Endocr Rev 1996;17:121–155.
  28. Peters H, Himelstein-Braw R, Faber M: The normal development of the ovary in childhood. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1976;82:617–630.

    External Resources

  29. Fauser BCJM, van Heusden AM: Manipulation of human ovarian function: Physiological concepts and clinical consequences. Endocr Rev 1997;18:71–106.
  30. Le Nestour E, Marraoui J, Lahlou N, Roger M, de Ziegler D, Bouchard P: Role of estradiol in the rise in follicle-stimulating hormone levels during the luteal-follicular transition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993;77:439–442.
  31. Hsueh AJ, Bicsak TA, Jia XC, Dahl KD, Fauser BC, Galway AB, Czekala N, Pavlou SN, Papkoff H, Keene J: Granulosa cells as hormone targets: The role of biologically active follicle-stimulating hormone in reproduction. Recent Prog Horm Res 1989;45:209–273.

    External Resources

  32. Brown JB: Pituitary control of ovarian function – Concepts derived from gonadotropin therapy. Austr NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 1978;18:47–54.
  33. Hall JE, Schoen DA, Martin KA, Crowley WF: Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion and follicle-stimulating hormone dynamics during the luteal-follicular transition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992;74:600–607.

    External Resources

  34. Macklon NS, Fauser BC: Follicle development during the normal menstrual cycle. Maturitas 1998;30:181–188.
  35. Groome NP, Illingworth PJ, O’Brien, M, Pai R, Rodger FR, Mather JP, McNeilly AS: Measurement of dimeric inhibin B throughout the human menstrual cycle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:1401–1405.
  36. Hsueh AJ: Paracrine mechanisms involved in granulosa cell differentiation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1986;15:117–134.
  37. Baird DT: A model for follicular selection and ovulation: Lessons from superovulation. J Steroid Biochem 1987;27:15–23.
  38. Schipper I, Hop WCJ, Fauser BCJM: The follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) threshold/window concept examined by differential interventions with exogenous FSH during the folllicular phase of the normal menstrual cycle: Duration rather than magnitude of FSH increase affects follicle development. J Clin Endocrinol Med 1998;83:1292–1298.
  39. Van Santbrink EJP, Hop WC, van Dessel HJHM, de Jong FH, Fauser BCJM: Decremental follicle-stimulating hormone and dominant follicle development during the normal menstrual cycle. Fertil Steril 1995;64:37–43.
  40. Schipper I, de Jong FH, Fauser BCJM: Lack of correlation between maximum early follicular phase serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels and menstrual cycle characteristics in women under the age of 35. Hum Reprod 1998;13:1442–1448.
  41. Pache TD, Hop WC, de Jong FH, Leerentveld RA, van Geldrop H, van de Kamp TM, Gooren LJ, Fauser BCJM: 17 beta-oestradiol, androstenedione and inhibin levels in fluid from individual follicles of normal and poycystic ovaries, and in ovaries from androgen treated female to male transsexuals. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1992;36:565–571.

    External Resources

  42. Van Dessel HJHM, Schipper I, Pache TD,van Geldrop H, de Jong FH, Hop WC, Fauser BCJM: Normal human follicle development and evaluation of correlations with oestradiol, androstenedione and progesterone levels in individual follicles. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1996;44:191–198.
  43. Hillier SG, van den Boogaard AMJ, Reichert LE Jr, van Hall EV: Intraovarian sex steroid hormone interactions and the regulation of follicular maturation: Aromatization of androgens by human granulosa cells in vitro. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1980;50:640–647.

    External Resources

  44. Erickson GF, Hsueh AJW, Quigley ME, Rebar RW, Yen SS: Functional studies of aromatase activity in human granulosa cells from normal and polycystic ovaries. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1979;49:514–519.

    External Resources

  45. Mason HD, Willis DS, Beard RW, Winston RM, Margara R, Franks S: Estradiol production by granulosa cells of normal and polycystic ovaries: Relationship to menstrual cycle history and concentrations of gonadotropins and sex steroids in follicular fluid. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994;79:1355–1360.
  46. Van Santbrink EJP, Hop WC, Fauser BC: Classification of normogonadotropic anovulatory infertility: Polycystic ovaries diagnosed by ultrasound versus endocrine characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 1997;67:453–458.
  47. Imani B, Eijkemans MJ, te Velde ER, Habbema JD, Fauser BC: Predictors of patients remaining anovulatory during clomiphene citrate induction of ovulation in normogonadotropic oligoamenorrheic infertility. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:2361–2365.
  48. Schoot DC, Hop WC, de Jong FH, van Dessel HJHM, Fauser BC: Initial estradiol response predicts outcome of exogenous gonadotrophins using a step-down regimen for induction of ovulation in PCOS. Fertil Steril 1995;64:1081–1087.
  49. Van Dessel HJHM, Schoot BC, Schipper I, Dahl KD, Fauser BC: Circulating immunoreactive and bioactive follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations in anovulatory infertile women during gonadotrophin induction of ovulation using a decremental dose regimen. Hum Reprod 1995;11:101–108.
  50. van Santbrink EJ, Donderwinkel PF, van Dessel TJ, Fauser BC: Gonadotrophin induction of ovulation using a step-down dose regimen: Single-centre clinical experience in 82 patients. Hum Reprod 1995;10:1048–1053.
  51. van Santbrink EJ, Fauser BC: Urinary follicle-stimulating hormone for normogonadotropic clomiphene-resistant infertility: Prospective, randomized comparison between low dose step-up and step-down dose regimens. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:3597–3602.
  52. Treloar AE: Menstrual cyclicity and the premenopause. Maturitas 1981;3:49–64
  53. Klein NA, Battaglia DE, Fujimoto VY: Reproductive aging: Accelerated ovarian follicular development associated with a monotropic rise in follicle-stimulating hormone rise in normal older women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:1038–1045.
  54. Reuss ML, Kline J, Santos R: Age and the ovarian follicle pool assessed with transvaginal ultrasonography. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996;174:624–627.
  55. Broekmans FJ, Scheffer GJ, Bancsi LF, Dorland M, Blankenstein MA, te Velde ER: Ovarian reserve tests in infertility practice and normal fertile women. Maturitas 1998;30:205–214.
  56. te Velde ER, Scheffer GJ, Dorland M, Broekmans FJ, van Kooij RJ: Age-dependent changes in serum FSH levels; in Fauser BCJM (ed): FSH Action and Intraovarian Regulation: Studies in Profertility. Series vol 6. New York, Parthenon, 1997, pp 145–155.


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50