Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 22, No. 5, 2009
Issue release date: October 2009

Influence of Bathing or Washing on Skin Barrier Function in Newborns during the First Four Weeks of Life

Garcia Bartels N. · Mleczko A. · Schink T. · Proquitté H. · Wauer R.R. · Blume-Peytavi U.
To view the fulltext, log in and/or choose pay-per-view option

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

Background and Objectives: After birth, skin barrier function is in state of flux and at risk of dysfunction. In a prospective clinical study, we compared the effects of 2 standard cleansing procedures on skin barrier function in newborns. Methods: Fifty-seven healthy full-term neonates aged ≤48 h were randomly assigned to either a bathing group (group B; n = 29), who were bathed with clear water twice weekly, or to a washing group (group W; n = 28), who were washed with a washcloth moistened with clear water twice weekly. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin pH, stratum corneum hydration (SCH) and sebum production were measured at days 2, 7 and 28 of life on the forehead, abdomen, upper leg and buttock. Results: Group B showed significantly lower TEWL on the buttock and higher SCH on the abdomen and forehead compared to group W at day 28. Conclusions: Both skin care regimens do not harm the adaptation of the skin barrier in healthy neonates within the first 4 weeks of life. Skin barrier function differentiates after birth in a regionally specific fashion.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Lund C, Kuller J, Lane, Lott JW, Raines DA: Neonatal skin care: the scientific basis for practice. Neonatal Netw 1999;18:15–27.
  2. Darmstadt GL, Dinulos JG: Neonatal skin care. Pediatr Clin North Am 2000;47:757–782.
  3. Wong EY, Shairai JH, Garlock TJ, Kissel JC: Adult proxy responses to a survey of children’s dermal soil contact activities. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 2000;10:509–517.
  4. Hoath SB, Maibach HI: Neonatal Skin: Structure and Function, ed 2. New York, Marcel Dekker, 2003.
  5. Henningson A, Nyström B, Tunnell R: Bathing or washing babies after birth? Lancet 1981;19:1401–1403.

    External Resources

  6. Nako Y, Harigaya A, Tomomasa T, Morikawa A, Amada M, Kijima C, Tsukagoshi S: Effects of bathing immediately after birth on early neonatal adaptation and morbidity: a prospective randomized comparative study. Pediatr Int 2000;42:517–522.
  7. Medves JM, O’Brien B: Does bathing newborns remove potentially harmful pathogens from the skin? Birth 2001;28:161–165.
  8. Cork MJ, Robinson DA, Vasilopoulos Y, Ferguson A, Moustafa M, MacGowan A, Duff GW, Ward SJ, Tazi-Ahnini R: New perspectives on epidermal barrier dysfunction in atopic dermatitis: gene-environment interactions. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006;118:3–21.
  9. Cork MJC, Murphy R, Carr J, et al: The rising prevalence of atopic eczema and environmental trauma to the skin. Dermatol Pract 2002;10:22–26.
  10. Visscher MO, Chatterjee R, Ebel JP, LaRuffa AA, Hoath SB: Biomedical assessment and instrumental evaluation of healthy infant skin. Pediatr Dermatol 2002;9:473–481.

    External Resources

  11. Gfatter R, Hackl P, Braun F: Effect of soap and detergents on skin surface pH, stratum corneum hydration and fat content in infants. Dermatology 1997;195:258–262.
  12. Hoeger PH, Enzmann C: Skin physiology of the neonate and young infant: a prospective study of functional skin parameters during early infants. Pediatr Dermatol 2002;19:256–262.
  13. Harpin VA, Rutter N: Barrier properties of newborn skin. J Pediatr 1983;103:419–425.

    External Resources

  14. Chiou YB, Blume-Peytavi U: Stratum corneum maturation. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2004;17:57–66.
  15. Lund CH, Osborne JW: Validity and reliability of the neonatal skin condition score. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal 2004;33:320–327.
  16. Brunner E, Domhof S, Langer F: Nonparametric Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Factorial Experiments. New York, Plenum Press, 2002, pp 243–244.
  17. Holbrook KA: Neonatal and Fetal Medicine: Physiology and Pathophysiology. New York, Grune and Stratton, 1992.
  18. Yosipovitch G, Maayan-Metzger A, Merlob P, Sirota L: Skin barrier properties in different body areas in neonates. J Pediatr 2000;106:105–108.
  19. Rutter N, Hull D: Water loss from the skin of term and preterm infants. Arch Dis Child 1979;54:858–868.
  20. Behne MJ, Barry NP, Hanson KM, Aronchik I, Clegg RW, Gratton E, Feingold K, Holleran WM, Elias PM, Mauro TM: Neonatal development of the stratum corneum pH gradient: localization and mechanism leading to emergence of optimal barrier function. J Invest Dermatol 2003;120:998–1006.
  21. Walker L, Downe S, Gomez L: Skin care in the well term newborn: two systematic reviews. Birth 2005;32:224–227.
  22. Pinnagoda J, Tupker RA, Agner TA, Serup J: Guidelines for transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements: a report from the Standardization Group of the European Society of Contact Dermatitis. Contact Derm 1990;22:164–178.
  23. Behrendt H, Green M: Skin pH pattern in the newborn infant. Am J Dis Child 1958;95:35–41.
  24. Beare JM, Cheeseman EA, Gailey AA, et al: The effect of age on the pH of the skin surface in the first week of life. Br J Dermatol 1960;2:62–66.

    External Resources

  25. Sato J, Yanai M, Hirao T, Denda M: Water content and thickness of the stratum corneum contribute to skin surface morphology. Arch Dermatol Res 2000;92:412–417.

    External Resources

  26. Warner RR, Stone KJ, Boissy YL: Hydration disrupts human stratum corneum ultrastructure. J Invest Dermatol 2003;120:275–284.
  27. Willis I: The effect of prolonged water exposure on human skin. J Invest Dermatol 1973;60:166–171.
  28. Okah FA, Wickett RR, Pickens WL, Hoath SB: Surface electrical capacitance as a non-invasive bedside measure of epidermal barrier maturation in the newborn infant. J Pediatr 1995;96:688–692.
  29. Song SP, Lv CZ, Feingold KR, Hou QN, Li ZY, Guo CY, Elias PM, Man MQ: Abnormalities in stratum corneum function in patients recovered from leprosy. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2009;22:131–136.


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50