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J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics 2009;2:149–158

ω–3 Fatty Acids, Genetic Variants in COX-2 and Prostate Cancer

Reese A.C.a · Fradet V.a · Witte J.S.a–c
Departments of aUrology and bEpidemiology and Biostatistics, and cInstitute for Human Genetics, University of California, San Francisco, Calif., USA
email Corresponding Author

 goto top of outline Key Words

  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • Diet
  • Gene
  • Genetic variation
  • ω–3 fatty acids
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • Prostatic neoplasms
  • Single nucleotide polymorphism

 goto top of outline Abstract

Dietary intake of fish and ω–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω–3 PUFAs) may decrease the risk of prostate cancer development and progression to advanced stage disease. This could reflect the anti-inflammatory effects of PUFAs, possibly through mediation of cyclooxygenase (COX), a key enzyme in fatty acid metabolism and inflammation. Despite promising experimental evidence, epidemiological studies have reported somewhat conflicting results regarding the effects of fish/PUFAs on prostate cancer development and progression. The literature suggests that fish, and particularly long-chain ω–3 PUFAs, may have a more pronounced protective effect on biologically aggressive tumors or on their progression, and less on early steps of carcinogenesis. Moreover, the impact of LC ω–3 PUFAs may be modified by variation of the COX-2 gene. Overall, results to date support the hypothesis that long-chain ω–3 PUFAs may impact prostate inflammation and carcinogenesis via the COX-2 enzymatic pathway.

Copyright © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

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 goto top of outline Author Contacts

John S. Witte
Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Urology
Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California
Diller Bldg, Room 388, 1450 3rd Street, MC 3110
San Francisco, CA 94158-9001 (USA), Tel. +1 415 502 6882, E-Mail

 goto top of outline Article Information

Published online: September 23, 2009
Number of Print Pages : 10
Number of Figures : 1, Number of Tables : 2, Number of References : 73

 goto top of outline Publication Details

Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics

Vol. 2, No. 3, Year 2009 (Cover Date: October 2009)

Journal Editor: Pérusse L. (Quebec, Que.)
ISSN: 1661-6499 (Print), eISSN: 1661-6758 (Online)

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