Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 26, No. 2, 2009
Issue release date: October 2009
Fetal Diagn Ther 2009;26:81–84

Value of Amniocentesis versus Fetal Tissue for Cytogenetic Analysis in Cases of Fetal Demise

Bryant Borders A.E. · Greenberg J. · Plaga S. · Shepard-Hinton M. · Yates C. · Elias S. · Shulman L.P.
aDivision of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, bDivision of Reproductive Genetics, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Ill., USA

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in


Objective: Use of fetal tissue for cytogenetic analysis in cases of second- and third-trimester fetal demise frequently results in unacceptably high failure rates. We reviewed our ongoing use of amniocentesis prior to uterine evacuation to determine if this provided a better source of cells for cytogenetic analysis. Methods: We compared cytogenetic results using fetal tissues obtained following uterine evacuation to our ongoing use of amniotic fluid cell obtained by transabdominal amniocentesis prior to uterine evacuation from 2003 to 2008. Results: In 49 of the 63 cases evaluated by fetal tissue biopsies performed after uterine evacuation, a karyotypic analysis was obtained (77.8%). Among the 38 cases evaluated by amniocentesis, an amniotic fluid sample and fetal cytogenetic results were obtained in all 38 (100%) cases. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that amniocentesis is a more reliable source of cytogenetic information than fetal tissue in cases of second- and third-trimester fetal demise.

Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.


  1. Copper RL, Goldenberg RL, DuBard MF, Davis RO: Risk factors for fetal death in White, Black and Hispanic women. Collaborative Group on Preterm Birth Prevention. Obstet Gynecol 1994;84:490–495.
  2. Warburton D: Chromosomal causes of fetal death. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1987;30:268–277.
  3. Rodgers CS, Creasy MR, Fitchett M, Maliszewska CT, Pratt NR, Waters JJ: Solid tissue culture for cytogenetic analysis: a collaborative survey for the Association of Clinical Cytogeneticists. J Clin Pathol 1996;49:638–641.
  4. Lathi RB, Milki AA: Tissue sampling technique affects accuracy of karyotype from missed abortions. J Assist Reprod Genet 2002;19:536–538.
  5. Jarrett KL, Michaels RC, Phelan MC, Vincent VA, Best RG: Microsatellite analysis reveals a high incidence of maternal cell contamination in 46,XX products of conception consisting of villi or a combination of villi and membranous material. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;185:198–203.
  6. Boue J, Boue A, Lazar P: Retrospective and prospective epidemiological studies of 1,500 karyotyped spontaneous human abortions. Teratology 1975;12:11–26.
  7. Korteweg FJ, Bouman K, Erwich JJHM, Timmer A, Veeger NJGM, Ravise JM, Nijman TH, Holm JP: Cytogenetic analysis after evaluation of 750 fetal deaths. Obstet Gynecol 111:865–874.
  8. Khare M, Howarth E, Sadler J, Healey K, Konje JC: A comparison of prenatal versus postnatal karyotyping for the investigation of intrauterine fetal death after the first trimester of pregnancy. Prenat Diagn 2005;25:1192–1195.
  9. Mueller FR, Sybert VP, Johnson J, Brown ZA, Chen WJ: Evaluation of a protocol for post-mortem examination of stillbirths. N Engl J Med 1983;309:586–590.
  10. Neiger R, Croom CS: Cyotogenetic study of amniotic fluid in the evaluation of fetal death. J Perinatol 1990;10:32–34.
  11. Angell RR, Sandison A, Bain AD: Chromosome variation in perinatal mortality: a survey of 500 cases. J Med Genet 1984;21:39–44.
  12. Ellis PM, Bain AD: Cytogenetics in the evaluation of perinatal death. Lancet 1984;630.
  13. Saal HM, Rodis J Weinbaum PJ, DiMaggio R, Landrey TM: Cytogenetic evaluation of fetal death: the role of amniocentesis. Obstet Gynecol 1987;70:601–603.
  14. Brady K, Duff P, Harlass FE, Reid S: Role of amniotic fluid cytogenetic analysis in the evaluation of recent fetal death. Am J Perinatol 1991;8:68–70.
  15. Bennett J, Obringer AC, Williams HJ, Wenger SL: Cytogenetic analysis in various tissues of pregnancy loss (letter to the editor). Genet Med 2006;8:2.

    External Resources

  16. Mujezinovic F, Alfirevic Z: Procedure-related complications of amniocentesis and chorionic villous sampling. Obstet Gynecol 2007;110:687–694.
  17. Plachouras N, Sotiriadis A, Dalkalitsis N, Kontostolis E, Xiropotamos N, Paraskevaidis E: Fulminant sepsis alter invasive prenatal diagnosis. Obstet Gynecol 2004;104:1244–1247.
  18. Wu HH, Yeh GP, Hsieh TC, Lin KC: Fulminant sepsis after second-trimester amniocentesis in pregnant women by in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Fetal Diagn Ther 2007;22:217–220.
  19. Erez Y, Ben-Shushan A, Elchalal U, Ben-Meir A, Rojansky N: Maternal morbidity following routine second trimester genetic amniocentesis. Fetal Diagn Ther 2007;22:226–228.
  20. Eddleman KA, Malone FD, Sullivan L, Dukes K, Berkowitz R, Kharbutli Y, Flint Porter T, Luthy DA, Comstock CH, Saade GR, Klugman S, Duguff L, Craigo SD, Timor-Tritsch IE, Carr SR, Wolfe HM, D’Alton ME: Pregnancy loss rates after midtrimester amniocentesis. Obstet Gyneol 2006;108:1067–1072.
  21. Greenwold N, Jauniaux E: Collection of villous tissue under ultrasound guidance to improve the cytogenetic study of early pregnancy failure. Hum Reprod 2002;17:452–456.

Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 33.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 23.00