Background: Mediators and cytokines have been demonstrated to be released due to nasal allergen exposure in sensitized subjects, but little is known about the release of cytokines and their antagonists under natural conditions. Methods: Mediators – histamine, eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP), leukotrienes (LT) C4/ D4/E4 – and cytokines – interleukin (IL)–1β, IL–8, IL–1 receptor antagonist (ra) – were measured in nasal secretions throughout the grass pollen season (6 visits) and for 6 weeks thereafter (3 visits) in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (n = 13) and compared to controls (n = 12). A second study was performed comparing nasal secretions of 13 subjects allergic to house dust mite to 8 controls. Results: Compared to controls, leukotrienes and ECP were significantly elevated at nearly all time points in and postseason in the allergic group. Whereas IL–1β was significantly elevated throughout the study period, IL–1ra was significantly decreased from visit 1 to 3. IL–8 showed no increase compared to controls. Data from subjects with perennial allergic rhinitis supported these findings and additionally demonstrated decreased concentrations of IL–8 and myeloperoxidase in secretions compared to controls. Conclusion: Allergic rhinitis represents a persistent inflammation in terms of an activation of eosinophils and constant upregulation of the proinflammatory cytokine IL–1β in the pollen season and thereafter. We additionally could demonstrate a dysfunction of the anti–inflammatory capacity, i.e. IL–1ra, a naturally occurring antagonist. Persistent inflammation may furthermore lead to the dysregulation of local cellular immunity by reducing the number and activity of neutrophils on the mucosal surface.
Copyright / Drug Dosage
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.