Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 43, No. 1, 2010
Issue release date: December 2009
Ophthalmic Res 2010;43:11–17

Attitudes towards Diagnostic Tests and Therapies for Dry Eye Disease

Graham J.E. · McGilligan V.E. · Berrar D. · Leccisotti A. · Moore J.E. · Bron A.J. · Moore T.C.B.
To view the fulltext, log in and/or choose pay-per-view option

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in


Aim: The purpose of this study was to survey the attitudes of optometrists and ophthalmologists, located in a number of different countries, towards diagnostic tests and therapies for dry eye disease. Methods: A web-based questionnaire was used to survey attitudes using forced-choice questions and Likert scales. Results: Sixty-one respondents (23 ophthalmologists and 38 optometrists) reported a wide range of patient dry eye symptoms. A large variation in use of diagnostic tests was noted. Patient symptoms and fluorescein staining were reported to be significantly more valuable and more frequently performed than any other test. Artificial tear supplements and improved lid hygiene were the preferred therapeutic options selected by the entire group. The results demonstrated a wide variation in attitudes in relation to satisfaction with the range of available diagnostic and therapeutic options. Conclusions: This study indicates that the interest for the issue of dry eye is relatively limited amongst eye professionals, as demonstrated by the poor participation in the questionnaire.

Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.


  1. Lemp MA, Baudouin C, Baum J, et al: The definition and classification of dry eye disease: report of the definition and classification subcommittee of the International Dry Eye Workshop (2007). Ocul Surf 2007;5:75–92.
  2. Rolando M, Zierhut M: The ocular surface and tear film and their dysfunction in dry eye disease. Surv Ophthalmol 2001;45(suppl 2):S203–S210.
  3. Begley CG, Chalmers RL, Mitchell GL, Nichols KK, Caffery B, Simpson T, DuToit R, Portello J, Davis L: Characterization of ocular surface symptoms from optometric practices in North America. Cornea 2001;20:610–618.
  4. Pflugfelder SC: Prevalence, burden and pharmacoeconomics of dry eye disease. Am J Manag Care 2008;14:S102–S106.

    External Resources

  5. Brewitt H, Sistani F: Dry eye disease: the scale of the problem. Surv Ophthalmol 2001;45(suppl 2):S199–S202.
  6. Moss SE, Klein R, Klein BE: Prevalence of and risk factors for dry eye syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol 2000;118:1264–1268.
  7. Albietz JM: Dry eye: an update on clinical diagnosis, management and promising new treatments. Clin Exp Optom 2001;84:4–18.
  8. Bron AJ: Diagnosis of dry eye. Surv Ophthalmol 2001;45(suppl 2):S221–S226.
  9. Miller WL, Doughty J, Narayanan S, Leach NE, Tran A, Gaume AL, Bergmanson JP: A comparison of tear volume (by tear meniscus height and phenol red thread test) and tear fluid osmolality measures in non-lens wearers and in contact lens wearers. Eye Contact Lens 2004;30:132–137.
  10. Kojima T, Ishida R, Dogru M, Goto E, Takano Y, Matsumoto Y, Kaido M, Ohashi Y, Tsubota K: A new noninvasive tear stability analysis system for the assessment of dry eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2004;45:1369–1374.
  11. Turner AW, Layton CJ, Bron AJ: Survey of eye practitioners’ attitudes towards diagnostic tests and therapies for dry eye disease. Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2005;33:351–355.
  12. Chang DF, Braga-Mele R, Mamalis N, et al: Prophylaxis of postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery: results of the 2007 ASCRS member survey. J Cataract Refract Surg 2007;33:1801–1805.
  13. Leaming DV: Practice styles and preferences of ASCRS members: 2003 survey. J Cataract Refract Surg 2004;30:892–900.
  14. Duffey RJ, Leaming D: Trends in refractive surgery in the United States. J Cataract Refract Surg 2004;30:1781–1785.
  15. Graham JE, Moore JE, Goodall EA, Dartt DA, Leccisotti A, McGilligan VE, Moore CBT: Concordance between common dry eye diagnostic tests. Br J Ophthalmol 2009;93:66–72.
  16. Chalmers RL, Begley CG, Edrington T, Caffery B, Nelson D, Snyder C, Simpson T: The agreement between self-assessment and clinician assessment of dry eye. Cornea 2005;24:804–810.
  17. Hay EM, Thomas E, Pal B, Hajeer A, Chambers H, Silman AJ: Weak association between subjective symptoms of and objective testing for dry eyes and dry mouth: results from a population based study. Ann Rheum Dis 1998;57:20–24.
  18. Smith J, Nichols KK, Baldwin EK: Current patterns in the use of diagnostic tests in dry eye evaluation. Cornea 2008;27:656–662.
  19. Lemp MA: Management of dry eye disease. Am J Manag Care 2008;14(3 suppl):S88–S101.
  20. Cordero-Coma M, Anzaar F, Sobrin L, Foster CS: Systemic immunomodulatory therapy in severe dry eye secondary to inflammation. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2007;15:99–104.
  21. Kunert KS, Tisdale AS, Stern ME, Smith JA, Gipson IK: Analysis of topical cyclosporine treatment of patients with dry eye syndrome: effect on conjunctival lymphocytes. Arch Ophthalmol 2000;118:1489–1496.
  22. Kunert KS, Tisdale AS, Gipson IK: Goblet cell numbers and epithelial proliferation in the conjunctiva of patients with dry eye syndrome treated with cyclosporine. Arch Ophthalmol 2002;120:330–337.
  23. De Paiva CS, Corrales RM, Villarreal AL, Farley W, Li DQ, Stern ME, Pflugfelder SC: Apical corneal barrier disruption in experimental murine dry eye is abrogated by methylprednisolone and doxycycline. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2006;47:2847–2856.
  24. Pflugfelder SC: Antiinflammatory therapy for dry eye. Am J Ophthalmol 2004;137:337–432.

Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50