Mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene, rendering the AR protein partially or completely inactive, cause androgen insensitivity syndrome, which is a form of a 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD). We present 3 novel AR variants found in a cohort of Indonesian DSD patients: p.I603N, p.P671S, and p.Q738R. The aim of this study was to determine the possible pathogenic nature of these newly found unclassified variants. To investigate the effect of these variants on AR function, we studied their impact on transcription activation, AR ligand-binding domain interaction with an FxxLF motif containing peptide, AR subcellular localization, and AR nuclear dynamics and DNA-binding. AR-I603N had completely lost its transcriptional activity due to disturbed DNA-binding capacity and did not show the 114-kDa hyperphosphorylated AR protein band normally detectable after hormone binding. The patient with AR-I603N displays a partial androgen insensitivity syndrome phenotype, which is explained by somatic mosaicism. A strongly reduced transcriptional activity was observed for AR-Q738R, together with diminished interaction with an FxxLF motif containing peptide. AR-P671S also showed reduced transactivation ability, but no change in DNA- or FxxLF-binding capacity and interferes with transcriptional activity for as yet unclear reasons.
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