Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 2, No. 4-5, 2009
Issue release date: May 2010

Association of Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene Polymorphisms with Blood Lipid Essential Fatty Acids and Perinatal Depression among Canadian Women: A Pilot Study

Xie L. · Innis S.M.
J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics 2009;2:243–250 (DOI:10.1159/000255636)
To view the fulltext, log in and/or choose pay-per-view option

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

Aims: The FADS1/FADS2 gene cluster encodes Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturase, rate-limiting enzymes in metabolism of linoleic (LA) to arachidonic (ARA) and α-linolenic to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FADS1/FADS2 contribute to variability in blood lipid fatty acids. Altered n–6 and n–3 fatty acids have been related to perinatal depression (PPD). Methods: We genotyped rs174553, rs99780, rs174575, and rs174583 in FADS1/FADS2, analyzed blood lipid fatty acids and assessed PPD risk as an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score ≧10 for 69 pregnant women. Results: 21, 12 and 15% women had an EPDS score ≧10 at 36 weeks’ gestation, 2 and 6 months postpartum, respectively. Quantitative trait analysis showed an association between rs174575 and PPD risk at 36 weeks’ gestation and 6 months postpartum. With haplotype ACCC (major alleles) for rs174553, rs99780, rs174575, rs174583, respectively, as reference, GTCT was positively associated with PPD risk at 36 weeks’ gestation, p = 0.028, and higher LA and lower ARA in plasma (p = 0.0001, p < 0.0001) and RBC ethanolamine phospholipids (p = 0.007, p = 0.005). Conclusions: We show that SNPs in FADS1/FADS2 are associated with higher blood lipid LA and lower ARA and PPD risk.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Marcus SM: Depression during pregnancy: rates, risk and consequences – mother risk update 2008. Can J Clin Pharmacol 2009;16:e15–e22.

    External Resources

  2. Leahy-Warren P, McCarthy G: Postnatal depression: prevalence, mothers’ perspectives, and treatments. Arch Psychiatr Nurse 2007;21:91–100.
  3. Evans J, Heron J, Francomb H, Oke S, Golding J: Cohort study of depressed mood during pregnancy and after childbirth. BMJ 2001;323:257–260.
  4. Chabrol H, Callahan S: Prevention and treatment of postnatal depression. Expert Rev Neurother 2007;7:557–576.
  5. Altshuler LL, Hendrick V, Cohen LS: Course of mood and anxiety disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum period. J Clin Psychiatry 1998;59:29–33.
  6. Newport DJ, Wilcox MM, Stowe ZN: Maternal depression: a child’s first adverse life event. Semin Clin Neuropsychiatry 2002;7:113–119.
  7. Hibbeln JR, Nieminene LR, Balsbalg TL, Riggs JA, Lands WE: Healthy intakes of n–3 and n–6 fatty acids: estimations from world wide diversity. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83:1483S–1493S.
  8. Hibbeln JR: Depression, suicide and deficiencies of omega–3 fatty acids in modern diets. World Rev Nutr Diet 2009;99:17–30.
  9. Lakhan SE, Vieira KF: Nutritional therapies for mental disorders. Nutr J 2008;7:2.
  10. Su KP: Biological mechanism of antidepressant effect of omega–3 fatty acids: how does fish oil act as a ‘mind-body interface’? Neurosignals 2009;17:144–152.
  11. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Belury MA, Porter MA, Beversdorf DQ, Lemeshow S, Glaser R: Depressive symptoms, omega–6:omega–3 fatty acids, and inflammation in older adults. Psychosom Med 2007;69:217–224.
  12. Chalon S: Omega–3 fatty acids and monoamine neurotransmission. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2006;75:259–269.
  13. Innis SM: Dietary (n–3) fatty acids and brain development. J Nutr 2007;137:855–859.
  14. Artmann A, Petersen G, Hellgren LI, Boberg J, Skonberg C, Nellemann C, Hansen SH, Hansen HS: Influence of dietary fatty acids on endocannabinoid and N-acylethanolamine levels in rat brain, liver and small intestine. Biochim Biophys Acta 2008;1781:200–212.
  15. Berger A, Crozier G, Bisogno T, Cavaliere P, Innis S, Di Marzo V: Anandamide and diet: inclusion of dietary arachidonate and docosahexaenoate leads to increased brain levels of the corresponding N-acylethanolamines in piglets. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001;98:6402–6406.
  16. Rees AM, Austin MP, Owen C, Parker G: Omega–3 deficiency associated with perinatal depression: case control study. Psychiatry Res 2009;166:254–259.
  17. Schiepers OJ, de Groot RH, Jolles J, van Boxtel MP: Plasma phospholipid fatty acid status and depressive symptoms: association only present in the clinical range. J Affect Disord 2009;118:209–214.
  18. Adams PB, Lawson S, Sanigorski A, Sinclair AJ: Arachidonic acid to eicosapentaenoic acid ratio in blood correlates positively with clinical symptoms of depression. Lipids 1996;31:S157–S161.
  19. Edwards R, Peet M, Shay J, Horrobin DJ: Omega–3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in the diet and in red blood cell membranes of depressed patients. Affect Disord 1998;48:149–155.
  20. Maes M, Christophe A, Delanghe J, Altamura C, Neels H, Meltzer HY: Lowered omega–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids and cholesteryl esters of depressed patients. Psychiatry Res 1999;275–291.
  21. Hibbeln JR: Seafood consumption, the DHA content of mothers’ milk and prevalence rates of postpartum depression: a cross-national, ecological analysis. J Affect Disord 2002;69:15–29.
  22. Freeman MP, Hibbeln JR, Wisner KL, Brumbach BH, Watchman M, Gelenberg AJ: Randomized dose-ranging pilot trial of omega–3 fatty acids for postpartum depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2006;113:31–35.
  23. Appleton KM, Gunnell D, Peters T, Ness AR, Kessler D, Rogers PJ: No clear evidence of an association between plasma concentrations of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and depressed mood in a non-clinical population. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2008;78:337–342.
  24. Golding J, Steer C, Emmett P, Davis JM, Hibbeln JR: High levels of depressive symptoms in pregnancy with low omega–3 fatty acid intake from fish. Epidemiology 2009;20:598–603.
  25. Sonkrop J, Avison WR, Evers SE, Speechley KN, Campbell MK: Depressive symptoms during pregnancy in relation to fish consumption and intake for n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2008;22:389–399.
  26. Miyake Y, Sasaki S, Yokoyama T, Tanaka K, Ohya Y, Fukushima W, Saito K, Ohfuji S, Kiyohara C, Hirota Y: Risk of postpartum depression in relation to dietary fish and fat intake in Japan. The Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study. Psychol Med 2006;36:1727–1735.
  27. Doornbos B, van Goor SA, Dijck-Brouwer DA, Schaafsma A, Korf J, Muskiet FA: Supplementation of a low dose of DHA or DHA+AA does not prevent peripartum depressive symptoms in a small population-based sample. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2009;33:49–52.
  28. Lucas M, Asselin G, Merette C, Poulin MJ, Dodin S: Ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid for the treatment of psychological distress and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:641–651.
  29. Stahl LA, Begg DP, Weisinger RS, Sinclair AJ: The role of omega–3 fatty acids in mood disorders. Curr Opin Investig Drugs 2008;9:57–64.
  30. Maes M, Maylova I, Kubera M, Bosmans E: Why fish oils may not always be adequate treatments for depression or other inflammatory illnesses: docosahexaenoic acid, an omega–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, induces Th-1-like immune response. Neuroendocrinol Lett 2007;28:875–880.
  31. DeMar JC, Lee HJ, Ma K, Chang L, Bell JM, Rapoport SI, Bazinet RP: Brain elongation of linoleic acid is a negligible source of arachidonate in brain phospholipids of adult rats. Biochim Biophys Acta 2006;16:1050–1059.
  32. Gao F, Kiesewetter D, Chang L, Ma K, Bell JM, Rapoport SI, Igarashi M: Whole-body synthesis-secretion rates of long-chain n–3 PUFAs from circulating unesterified α-linolenic acid in unanesthetized rats. J Lipid Res 2009;50:749–758.
  33. Cho HP, Nakamura MT, Clarke SD: Cloning, expression, and nutritional regulation of the mammalian Δ-6 desaturase. J Biol Chem 1999;274:471–477.
  34. Cho HP, Nakamura M, Clarke SD: Cloning, expression, and fatty acid regulation of the human Δ-5 desaturase. J Biol Chem 1999;274:37335–37339.
  35. Nakamura MT, Nara TY: Structure, function, and dietary regulation of Δ-6, Δ-5, and Δ-9 desaturases. Annu Rev Nutr 2004;24:345–376.
  36. Schaeffer L, Gohlke H, Muller M, Heid IM, Palmer LJ: Common genetic variants of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster and their reconstructed haplotypes are associated with the fatty acid composition in phospholipids. Hum Mol Genet 2006;15:1745–1756.
  37. Schaeffer L, Xumerle L, Klopp N, Trabetti E: SNPs of the FADS gene cluster are associated with polyunsaturated fatty acids in a cohort of patients with cardiovascular disease. Lipids 2008;43:288–299.
  38. Xie L, Innis SM: Genetic variants of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster are associated with altered (n–6) and (n–3) essential fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids in women during pregnancy and in breast milk during lactation. J Nutr 2008;138:2222–2228.
  39. Malerba G, Schaeffer L, Xumerle L, Klopp N, Trabetti E, Biscuola M, Cavallari U, Galavotti R, Martinelli N, Guarini P, et al: SNPs of the FADS gene cluster are associated with polyunsaturated fatty acids in a cohort of patients with cardiovascular disease. Lipids 2008;43:289–299.
  40. Innis SM, Friesen RW: Essential n–3 fatty acids in pregnant women and early visual acuity maturation in term infants. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:548–557.
  41. Innis SM, Elias SL: Intakes of essential n–6 and n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids among pregnant Canadian women. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:473–478.
  42. Cox JL, Holden JM, Sagovsky R: Detection of postnatal depression development of the 10-Item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Br J Psychiatry 1987;150:782–786.
  43. Cox JL, Chapman G, Murray D, Jones P: Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in non-postnatal women. J Affect Disord 1996;39:185–189.
  44. Hanusa BH, Scholle SH, Haskett RF, Spadaro K, Wisner KL: Screening for depression in the postpartum period: a comparison of three instruments. J Womens Health 2008;17:585–596.

    External Resources

  45. Elias SL, Innis SM: Infant plasma trans, n–6, and n–3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids are related to maternal plasma fatty acids, length of gestation, and birth weight and length. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:807–814.
  46. Innis SM, Gilley J, Werker J: Are human milk long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids related to visual and neural development in breast-fed term infants? J Pediatr 2001;139:532–538.
  47. Marquardt A, Stohr H, White K, Weber BH: CDNA cloning, genomic structure and chromosomal localization of three members of the human fatty acid desaturase family. Genomics 2000;66:175–183.
  48. Nesheim MC, Yaktine AL (eds): Committee on Nutrient Relationships in Seafood: Selections to Balance Benefits and Risks. Washington, National Academies Press, 2007.
  49. Hill MN, Miller GE, Carrier EJ, Gorzalka BB, Hillard CJ: Circulating endocannabinoids and N-acyl-ethanolamines are differentially regulated in major depression and following exposure to social stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2009;34:1257–1262.
  50. Hill MN, Miller GE, Ho WS, Gorzalka BB, Hillard CJ: Serum endocannabinoid content is altered in females with depressive disorders: a preliminary report. Pharmacopsychiatry 2008;41:48–53.
  51. Yang H, Chen C: Cyclooxygenase-2 in synaptic signaling. Curr Pharm Des 2008;14:1443–1451.
  52. Caspi A, Williams B, Kim-Cohen J, Craig IW, Milne BJ, Poulton R, Schalkwyk LC, Taylor A, Werts H, Moffitt TE: Moderation of breastfeeding effects on the IQ by genetic variation in fatty acid metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007;104:18860–18865.
  53. Shimano H: Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins: transcriptional regulators of lipid synthetic genes. Prog Lipid Res 2001;40:439–452.
  54. Weber LW, Boll M, Stampfl A: Maintaining cholesterol homeostasis: sterol regulatory element-binding proteins. World J Gastroeneterol 2004;10:3081–3087.
  55. Yoshikawa T, Shimano H, Yahagi N, Ide T, Amemiya-Kudo M, Matsuzaka T, Nakakuki M, Tomita S, Okazaki H, Tamura Y, et al: Polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress regulatory element-binding protein 1c promoter activity by inhibition of liver X receptor binding to RXR response elements. J Biol Chem 2002;277:1705–1711.
  56. Liou AY, Innis SM: Dietary linoleic acid has no effect on arachidonic acid, but increases n–6 eicosadienoic acid, and lowers dihomo-γ-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma of adult men. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2009;80:201–206.
  57. Troisi A: Cholesterol in coronary heart disease and psychiatric disorders: same or opposite effects on morbidity risk? Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2009;33:125–132.
  58. Harris WS: Linoleic acid and coronary heart disease. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2008;79:169–171.
  59. Chatterjee S, Szustakowski JD, Nanguneri NR, Mickanin C, Labow MA, Nohturfft A, Dev KK, Sivasankaran R: Identification of novel genes and pathways regulating SREBP transcriptional activity. PLoS ONE 2009;4:e5197.
  60. Deng X, Cagen LM, Wilcox HG, Park EA, Raghow R, Elam MB: Regulation of the rat SREBP-1c promoter in primary rat hepatocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002;290:256–262.


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50