Cover

Pediatric Neuroendocrinology

Editor(s): Loche S. (Cagliari) 
Cappa M. (Rome) 
Ghizzoni L. (Turin) 
Maghnie M. (Genova) 
Savage M.O. (London) 
Table of Contents
Vol. 17, No. , 2010
Section title: Paper
Loche S, Cappa M, Ghizzoni L, Maghnie M, Savage MO (eds): Pediatric Neuroendocrinology. Endocr Dev. Basel, Karger, 2010, vol 17, pp 22–35
(DOI:10.1159/000262525)

Sexual Hormones and the Brain: An Essential Alliance for Sexual Identity and Sexual Orientation

Garcia-Falgueras A. · Swaab D.F.
Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, an Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Do you have an account?

Register and profit from personalized services (MyKarger) Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information









I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

Register and profit from personalized services (MyKarger) Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information









I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger (new!)
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
  • Reduced rates with a PPV account
read more

Direct: USD 33.00
Account: USD 23.00

Select

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restriction apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00

Select

Complete book

  • Immediate access to all parts of this book
  • Cover-to-cover formats may be available
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Pricing depends on hard-cover price


Select


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Published online: 11/24/2009
Cover Date: 2010

Number of Print Pages: 14
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISBN: 978-3-8055-9302-1 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-8055-9303-8 (Online)

Abstract

The fetal brain develops during the intrauterine period in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge. In this way, our gender identity (the conviction of belonging to the male or female gender) and sexual orientation are programmed or organized into our brain structures when we are still in the womb. However, since sexual differentiation of the genitals takes place in the first two months of pregnancy and sexual differentiation of the brain starts in the second half of pregnancy, these two processes can be influenced independently, which may result in extreme cases in trans-sexuality. This also means that in the event of ambiguous sex at birth, the degree of masculinization of the genitals may not reflect the degree of masculinization of the brain. There is no indication that social environment after birth has an effect on gender identity or sexual orientation.


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Published online: 11/24/2009
Cover Date: 2010

Number of Print Pages: 14
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISBN: 978-3-8055-9302-1 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-8055-9303-8 (Online)


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Alexander GM, Wilcox T, Woods R: Sex differences in infants’ visual interest in toys. Arch Sex Behav 2009;38:427-433
  2. Alexander GM, Hines M: Sex differences in response to children's toys in nonhuman primates (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus). Evolution and Human Behavior 2002;23:467-479
  3. Hassett JM, Siebert ER, Wallen K: Sex differences in rhesus monkey toy preferences parallel those of children. Horm Behav 2008;54:359-364
  4. Williams CL, Pleil KE: Toy story: why do monkey and human males prefer trucks? Comment on ‘Sex differences in rhesus monkey toy preferences parallel those of children’ by Hassett, Siebert and Wallen. Horm Behav 2008;54:355-358
  5. Wallen K, Hassett JM: Sexual differentiation of behaviour in monkeys: role of prenatal hormones. J Neuroendocrinol 2009;21:421-426
  6. Nordenström A, Servin A, Bohlin G, et al: Sex-typed toy play behavior correlates with the degree of prenatal androgen exposure assessed by CYP21 genotype in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 2002;87:5119-5124
  7. Mathews GA, Fane BA, Conway GS, Brook CG, Hines M: Personality and congenital adrenal hyperplasia: possible effects of prenatal androgen exposure. Horm Behav 2009;55:285-291
  8. Hines M, Alexander GM: Monkeys, girls, boys and toys: a confirmation Letter regarding ‘Sex differences in toy preferences: striking parallels between monkeys and humans’. Horm Behav 2008;54:478-479
  9. Wilson JD: Androgens, androgen receptors, and male gender role behavior. Horm Behav 2001;40:358-366
  10. Wallien MS, Cohen-Kettenis PT: Psychosexual outcome of gender-dysphoric children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2008;47:1413-1423
  11. Iijima M, Arisaka O, Minamoto F: Sex differences in children's free drawings: a study on girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Horm Behav 2001;40:90-104
  12. Mazur A, Booth A: Testosterone and dominance in men. Behav Brain Sci 1998;21:353-363
  13. Dabbs JM, Jr: Salivary testosterone measurements: reliability across hours, days, and weeks. Physiol Behav 1990;48:83-86
  14. Dabbs JM, Jr, Mohammed S: Male and female salivary testosterone concentrations before and after sexual activity. Physiol Behav 1992;52:195-197
  15. Swaab DF: The human hypothalamus: basic and clinical aspects. II. Neuropathology of the hypothalamus and adjacent brain structures. (eds) Aminoff MJ, Boller F, Swaab DF: Handbook of Clinical Neurology Amsterdam, Elsevier, 2004;596
  16. Dewing P, Shi T, Horvath S, Vilain E: Sexually dimorphic gene expression in mouse brain precedes gonadal differentiation. Brain Res 2003;118:82-90
  17. Swaab DF, Garcia-Falgueras A: Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation. Funct Neurol 2009;24:17-28
  18. Zucker KJ, Cohen-Kettenis PT: Gender identity disorder in children and adolescents. (eds) Rowland DL, Incrocci L: Handbook of Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders Wiley, New York, 2008;
  19. Money J: Ablatio penis: normal male infant sex-reassigned as a girl. Arch Sex Behavr 1975;4:65-71
  20. Money J, Erhardt AA: Man and Woman, Boy and Girl: The Differentiation and Dimorphism of Gender Identity from Conception to Maturity. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1972;
  21. Diamond M, Sigmundson K: Sex reassignment at birth. Long-term review and clinical implications. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1997;151:298-304
  22. Wisniewski AB, Migeon CJ, Meyer-Bahlburg HFL, et al: Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome: longterm medical, surgical, and psychosexual outcome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:2664-2669
  23. Katsumata N, Horikawa R, Tanaka T: Novel mis-sense mutation in the P-box of androgen receptor in a patient with androgen insensitivity syndrome. Endocr J 2008;55:225-228
  24. Reiner WG, Gearhart JP: Discordant sexual identity in some genetic males with cloacal exstrophy assigned to female sex at birth. N Engl J Med 2004;350:333-341
  25. Meyer-Bahlburg HFL: Gender identity outcome in female-raised 46, XY persons with penile agenesis, cloacal exstrophy of the bladder, or penile ablation. Arch Sex Behav 2005;34:423-438
  26. Lehre AC, Lehre KP, Laake P, Danbolt NC: Greater intrasex phenotype variability in males than in females is a fundamental aspect of the gender differences in humans. Dev Psychobiol 2009;51:198-206
  27. Koutcherov Y, Paxinos G, Mai JK: Organization of the human medial preoptic nucleus. J Comp Neurol 2007;503:392-406
  28. Swaab DF, Fliers E: A sexually dimorphic nucleus in the human brain. Science 1985;228:1112-1115
  29. Hofman MA, Swaab DF: The sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area in the human brain: a comparative morphometric study. J Anat 1989;164:55-72
  30. Swaab DF, Gooren LJ, Hofman MA: The human hypothalamus in relation to gender and sexual orientation. Prog Brain Res 1992;93:205-219
  31. Allen LS, Hines M, Shryne JE, Gorski RA: Two sexually dimorphic cell groups in the human brain. J Neurosci 1989;9:497-506
  32. Garcia-Falgueras A, Swaab DF: A sex difference in the hypothalamic uncinate nucleus: relationship to gender identity. Brain 2008;131:3132-3146
  33. LeVay S: A difference in hypothalamic structure between heterosexual and homosexual men. Science 1991;253:1034-1037
  34. Byne W, Lasco MS, Kemether E, et al: The interstitial nuclei of the human anterior hypothalamus: an investigation of sexual variation in volume and cell size, number and density. Brain Res 2000;856:254-258
  35. Byne W, Tobet S, Mattiace LA, et al: The interstitial nuclei of the human anterior hypothalamus: an investigation of variation with sex, sexual orientation, and HIV status. Horm Behav 2001;40:86-92
  36. Swaab DF: The human hypothalamus: basic and clinical aspects. I. Nuclei of the hypothalamus. (eds) Aminoff MJ, Boller F, Swaab DF: Handbook of Clinical Neurology Amsterdam, Elsevier, 2003;127-140
  37. Cohen-Kettenis PT, Gooren LJ: Transsexualism: a review of etiology, diagnosis and treatment. J Psychosom Res 1999;46:315-333
  38. Zhou JN, Hofman MA, Gooren LJ, Swaab DF: A sex difference in the human brain and its relation to transsexuality. Nature 1995;378:68-70
  39. Kruijver FP, Zhou JN, Pool CW, Hofman MA, Gooren LJ, Swaab DF: Male-to-female transsexuals have female neuron numbers in a limbic nucleus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:2034-2041
  40. Chung WC, De Vries GJ, Swaab DF: Sexual differentiation of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in humans may extend into adulthood. J Neurosci 2002;22:1027-1033
  41. Cohen-Kettenis PT, van Goozen SH, Doorn CD, Gooren LJ: Cognitive ability and cerebral lateralisation in transsexuals. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1998;23:631-641
  42. Berglund H, Lindström P, Dhejne-Helmy C, Savic I: Male-to-female transsexuals show sex-atypical hypothalamus activation when smelling odorous steroids. Cereb Cortex 2008;18:1900-1908
  43. LeVay S: Queer Science. The Use and Abuse of Research into Homosexuality MIT Press, Cambridge, 1996;
  44. Kaiser S, Sachser N: Effects of prenatal social stress on offspring development. Curr Direction Psychol Sci 2009;18:118-121
  45. Green R: Sexual identity of 37 children raised by homosexual or transsexual parents. Am J Psychiatry 1978;135:692-697
  46. Swaab DF, Hofman MA: An enlarged suprachiasmatic nucleus in homosexual men. Brain Res 1990;537:141-148
  47. Swaab DF: Sexual orientation and its basis in brain structure and function. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2008;105:10273-10274
  48. Savic I, Lindström P: PET and MRI show differences in cerebral asymmetry and functional connectivity between homo- and heterosexual subjects. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2008;105:9403-9408
  49. Kinnunen LH, Moltz H, Metz J, Cooper M: Differential brain activation in exclusively homosexual and heterosexual men produced by the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. Brain Res 2004;1024:251-254
  50. Rahman Q, Cockburn A, Govier E: A comparative analysis of functional cerebral asymmetry in lesbian women, heterosexual women, and heterosexual men. Arch Sex Behav 2008;37:566-571