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Vol. 74, No. 4, 2009
Issue release date: February 2010
Section title: Original Paper
Brain Behav Evol 2009;74:268–279
(DOI:10.1159/000264662)

Aquatic Environment and Differentiation of Vibrissae: Comparison of Sinus Hair Systems of Ringed Seal, Otter and Pole Cat

Hyvärinen H. · Palviainen A. · Strandberg U. · Holopainen I.J.
Faculty of Biosciences, University of Joensuu, Joensuu, Finland

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: 2/26/2008
Accepted: 9/25/2009
Published online: 12/8/2009

Number of Print Pages: 12
Number of Figures: 12
Number of Tables: 2

ISSN: 0006-8977 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9743 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/BBE

Abstract

This study investigated the structure and innervation of the vibrissal systems of the pole cat (Mustela putorius), European otter (Lutra lutra) and ringed seal (Phoca hispida) in order to find adaptations to aquatic environment. The number of myelinated nerve fibers of deep vibrissal nerve (DVN) of the entire vibrissal system was considerably greater in the ringed seal (10×, aquatic mammal) and in the otter (4×, semi-aquatic mustelid) compared to the pole cat which is a terrestrial mustelid. Similarly, the number of neural end organs in the vibrissae of ringed seals was about ten times more numerous than in pole cats. The number of the vibrissae in the heads of otters was almost two times more than in pole cats, and all vibrissa groups had similar structures and innervation. The asymmetrically developed carpal vibrissae of otters were, however, more poorly innervated than the vibrissae of the head and had only smooth musculature. In the ringed seal the orientation of lanceolate end organs differed in different vibrissae, indicating the specialization of these vibrissae for different kinds of sensory functions. Ringed seal vibrissae contain structures which obviously are developed as adaptations to an aquatic environment. These include the modified mitochondria of Merkel cells, with Merkel cell-neurite complexes very often associated ciliated cells, liquid filled vesicles or intercellular spaces below the basal cell layer of the outer root sheath at the ring sinus level, a long upper cavernous sinus and a flattened beaded structure of the vibrissa hairs. As the vibrissae of aquatic mammals have analogous functions to the lateral line organ of fishes, we suggest using the term ‘vibrissal sense’ for the vibrissa system of aquatic mammals.


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: 2/26/2008
Accepted: 9/25/2009
Published online: 12/8/2009

Number of Print Pages: 12
Number of Figures: 12
Number of Tables: 2

ISSN: 0006-8977 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9743 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/BBE


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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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