Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 39, No. 1, 1999
Issue release date: January 1999
Neuropsychobiology 1999;39:1–9
(DOI:10.1159/000026552)

The Effects of Psychological Stress on Leukocyte Subset Distribution in Humans: Evidence of Immune Activation

Maes M. · van Bockstaele D.R. · Gastel A. · Song C. · Schotte C. · Neels H. · DeMeester I. · Scharpe S. · Janca A.
aUniversity Department of Psychiatry, AZ Stuivenberg, Antwerp, Belgium, bDepartment of Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn., USA, cDepartment of Hematology, University Hospital of Antwerp, Belgium, dLife Sciences Research Center, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, eLaboratories of Clinical Biology, OCMW Hospitals, Antwerp, and fDepartment of Medical Biochemistry, University of Antwerp, Belgium, gDivision of Mental Health and Prevention of Substance Abuse, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of academic examination stress on leukocyte subset distribution in university students. Thirty-eight university students had repeated blood collections for white blood cell differentiation and flow cytometric assay of lymphocytic subsets a few weeks before and after (i.e. two baseline conditions) as well as the day before a difficult academic examination (i.e. stress condition). Flow cytometry was used to determine the number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In students, who were reactors to psychological stress (criterion based on changes in the Perceived Stress Scale, PSS), but not in stress non-reactors, a significant increase in the number of neutrophils, monocytes, CD8+, CD2+CD26+, and CD2+HLA-DR+ T cells and CD19+ B cells, and significant reductions in the CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio were observed in the stress condition. There were significant and positive relationships between the stress-induced changes in perceived stress (PSS scale) and number of leukocytes, neutrophils, CD2+, CD2+CD26+ and CD2+HLADR+ T cells, and CD19+ B cells. There were significant and negative relationships between the stress-induced changes in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio and the stress-induced changes in the PSS scale. Female students taking oral contraceptives showed significantly higher stress-induced responses in number of leukocytes, neutrophils and CD19+ B cells than male and female students without use of oral contraceptives. The results suggest that academic examination stress induces changes in the distribution of PBMC, which indicate immune activation and which are probably orchestrated by a stress-induced production of cytokines.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Biondi M, Pancheri P: Clinical research strategies in psycho-immunology: A review of 46 human research studies (1972–1992); in Leonard BE, Miller K (eds): Stress, the Immune System and Psychiatry. Chichester, Wiley, 1995, pp 85–112.
  2. Leonard BE: Stress and the immune system: Immunological aspects of depressive illness; in Leonard BE, Miller K (eds): Stress, the Immune System and Psychiatry. Chichester, Wiley, 1995, pp 113–136.
  3. Knapp PH, Levy EM, Giorgi RG, Black PH, Fox BH, Heeren TC: Short-term immunological effects of induced emotion. Psychosom Med 1992;54:133–148.
  4. Workman EA, La Via MF: T-lymphocyte polyclonal proliferation: Effects of stress and stress response style on medical students taking national board examinations: Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1987;43:308–313.
  5. Marchesi GF, Cotani P, Santone G, Di Giuseppe S, Bartocci C, Montroni M: Psychological and immunological relationships during acute academic stress. New Trends Exp Clin Psychiatry 1989;5:5–22.
  6. Dorian B, Garfinkel P, Brown G, Shore A, Gladman D, Keystone E: Aberrations in lymphocyte subpopulations and function during psychological stress. Clin Exp Immunol 1982;50:132–138.
  7. Arnetz BB, Wasserman J, Petrini B, Brenner SO, Levi L, Eneroth P, Salovaara H, Hjelm R, Salovaara L, Theorell T, Petterson L: Immune function in unemployed women. Psychosom Med 1987;49:3–11.

    External Resources

  8. Westermann J, Pabst R: Lymphocyte subsets on the blood: A diagnostic window on the lymphoid system? Immunol Today 1990;11:406–410.
  9. Biselli R, Farrace S, D’Amelio R, Fattorossi A: Influence of stress on lymphocyte subset distribution: A flow cytometric study in young student pilots. Aviat Space Environ Med 1993;64:116–120.

    External Resources

  10. Brosschot JF, Benschop RJ, Godaert GLR, De Smet MBM, Olff M, Heijnen CJ, Ballieux RE: Effects of experimental psychological stress on distribution and function of peripheral blood cells. Psychosom Med 1992;54:394–406.
  11. Gerritsen W, Heijnen CJ, Wiegant V, Bermond B, Frijda NH: Experimental social fear: Immunological, hormonal and autonomic concomitants. Psychosom Med 1996;58:273–286.
  12. Dantzer R, Mormede P: Psychoneuroimmunology of stress; in Leonard BE, Miller K (eds): Stress, the Immune System and Psychiatry. Chichester, Wiley, 1995, pp 48–83.
  13. Fittschen B, Schulz K-H, Schulz H, Raedler A, Kerekjarto M: Changes of immunological parameters in healthy subjects under examination stress. Int J Neurosci 1990;51:241–242.

    External Resources

  14. Maes M, Meltzer HY, Stevens W, Cosyns P, Blockx P: Multiple reciprocal relationships betweeen in vivo cellular immunity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in depression. Psychol Med 1994;24:167–177.
  15. Hall NRS, Anderson JA, O’Grady MP: Stress and immunity in humans; Modifying variables; in Glaser R, Kiecolt-Glaser J (eds): Handbook of Human Stress and Immunity. San Diego, Academic Press, 1994, pp 183–215.
  16. Lynch EA, Dinarello CA, Cannon JG: Gender differences in IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-1 receptor antagonist secretion from mononuclear cells and urinary excretion. J Immunol 1994;153:300–306.
  17. Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R: A global measure of perceived stress. J Health Social Behav 1983;24:386–396.
  18. Wald FDM, Mellenbergh GJ: De verkorte versie van de Nederlandse vertaling van de Profile of Mood States (POMS). Nederl Tijdschr Psychol 1990;45:86–90.
  19. Derksen JJL, de Mey HRA: MMPI-2TM handleiding bij afname, scoring en interpretatie. Nijmegen, Pen Tests, 1993.
  20. Hautekeete ML, De Bock RF, Van Bockstaele DR, Colpin GC, Berneman ZN, Peetermans ME: Flow cytometric analysis of T-lymphocyte subpopulations in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: Correlation with clinical stages. Blut 1987;55:447–452.

    External Resources

  21. De Meester I, Scharpé S, Vanham G, Bosmans E, Heyligen H, Vanhoof G, Corte G: Antibody binding profile of purified and cell-bound CD26. Designation of BT5/9 and TA5.9 to the CD26 cluster. Immunobiology 1993;188:145–158.

    External Resources

  22. Vanham G, Kestens L, De Meester I, Vingerhoets J, Penne G, Vanhoof G, Scharpé S, Heyligen H, Bosmans E, Ceuppens JL, Gigase P: Decreased expression of the memory marker CD26 on both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes of HIV-infected subjects. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1993;6:749–757.
  23. Demendts P, Wauters A, Franck F, Neels H: Simultaneous determination of lidocaine, bupivacaine, and their two main metabolites using GC/NPD: Selection of stationary phase and chromatographic conditions. Ther Drug Monit 1996;18:208–211.
  24. Reisner EH: Tissue culture of bone marrow. II. Effect of steroid hormones on hematopoiesis in vitro. Blood 1966;27:460–466.

    External Resources

  25. Cid MC, Kleinman HK, Grant DS, Schnaper HW, Fauci AS, Hoffman GS: Estradiol enhances leukocyte binding to tumor necrosis factor-stimulated endothelial cells via an increase in TNF-induced adhesion molecules E-selectin, interceullular adhesion molecule type 1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule type 1. J Clin Invest 1994;93:17–25.
  26. Bagdade JD, Subbaiah PV: Influence of low-estrogen-containing oral contraceptives on lipoprotein phospholipid composition and mononuclear cell membrane fluidity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1988;66:857–861.
  27. Hammerschmidt DE, Knabe AC, Silberstein PT, Lamche HR, Coppo PA: Inhibition of granulocyte function by steroids is not limited to corticoids. Studies with sex steroids. Inflammation 1988;12:277–284.
  28. Grossman CJ: Interactions between the gonadal steroids and the immune system. Science 1985;227:257–261.
  29. Athreya BH, Pletcher J, Zullian F, Weiner DB, Williams WV: Subset-specific effects of sex hormones and pituitary gonadotropins on human lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1993;66:201–211.
  30. Washburn TC, Medearis J, Childs B: Sex differences in susceptibility to infections. Pediatrics 1965;35:57–64.
  31. Ahmed SA, Penhale WJ, Talal N: Sex hormones, immune responses, and autoimmune diseases. Am J Pathol 1985;121:531–551.
  32. Biondi M, Peronti M, Pacitti F, Pancheri P, Pacific R, Altieri I, Paris L, Zuccaro P: Personality, endocrine and immune changes after eight months in healthy individuals under normal daily stress. Psychother Psychosom 1994;62:176–184.

    External Resources

  33. LeMay LG, Vander AJ, Kluger MJ: The effects of psychological stress on plasma interleukin-6 activity in rats. Physiol Behav 1990;47:957–961.
  34. Soszynski D, Kozak W, Conn CA, Rudolph K, Kluger MJ: Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists suppress elevation in body temperature and increase plasma IL-6 in rats exposed to open field. Neuroendocrinology 1996;63:459–467.
  35. Minami M, Kuraishi Y, Yamaguchi T, et al: Immobilization stress induces interleukin-1 mRNA in the rat hypothalamus. Neurosci Lett 1991;123:254–256.
  36. Maes M, Song C, Lin A, Gabries L, DeJongh R, Van Gasel A, Kenis G, Bosmans E, DeMeester I, Benoyt I, Neels H, Demedts P, Janca A, Scharpe S, Smith RS: The effects of psychological stress on humans: Increased production of proinflammatory cytokines and a Th-1-like response in stress-induced anxiety. Cytokine 1998;10:313–318.
  37. Cavaillon JM: Les cytokines. Paris, Masson, 1996.


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50