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Vol. 19, No. 2, 2010
Issue release date: February 2010
Section title: Original Paper
Open Access Gateway
Med Princ Pract 2010;19:105–112
(DOI:10.1159/000273069)

Prevalence and Correlates of Major Chronic Illnesses among Older Kuwaiti Nationals in Two Governorates

Shah N.M.a · Behbehani J.a · Shah M.A.b
aDepartment of Community Medicine and Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait; bDepartment of Allied Health Sciences, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Pakistan
email Corresponding Author

Abstract

Objective: To provide community-based information on the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and heart disease and to highlight their significant correlates. Materials and Methods: Data were collected in a cross-sectional household survey of 2,487 Kuwaiti nationals aged 50 and over in 2005/2006. A proportionately representative sample of 1,451 respondents from a relatively more urban area (Capital) and 1,036 respondents from a relatively less urban area (Ahmadi) were interviewed. A proxy respondent was used in 5.4% of cases. Among the 2,605 potentially eligible persons approached, 2,487 (95.5%) participated. Results: Doctor-diagnosed prevalences of hypertension, diabetes and heart disease in the two governorates were reported to be 53.4, 50.6 and 17.5%, respectively. If the prevalence in the two governorates is reflective of the nation, a remarkable increase seems to have occurred since 1996. The prevalence of each of the three diseases increased linearly by age among both sexes. Comorbidity of the three diseases increased from 3.6 to 9.4 and to 20.9% among those aged 50–59, 60–69 and ≧70 years, respectively. Logistic regression showed the prevalence of chronic illnesses to be significantly higher among persons who were older, retired, non-Bedouin, less educated, had higher income, were less socially active, were obese and had poorer exercise behavior. The prevalence of diabetes and heart disease was significantly lower among women than men. Conclusion: Judging from data on two governorates, the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and heart disease is likely to have increased to alarmingly high levels among older Kuwaitis, highlighting the need for focused intervention programs in order to reduce morbidity and increase healthy life years.

© 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel


  

Key Words

  • Hypertension prevalence
  • Diabetes prevalence
  • Heart disease prevalence
  • Kuwait
  • Chronic illnesses

References

  1. Public Authority for Civil Information: Directory of Population and Labor Force. Kuwait, Government of Kuwait, 2007.
  2. Ministry of Health: Health Kuwait. Kuwait, Health and Vital Statistics Division, Department of Statistics and Medical Records, 2005.
  3. Alnesef Y, Al-Rashoud RH, Farid SM: Kuwait Family Health Survey 1996: Principal Report (as part of Gulf Family Health Survey). Kuwait, Ministry of Health, 2000.
  4. El-Reshaid K, Al-Owaish R, Diab A: Hypertension in Kuwait: the past, present and future. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transplant 1999;10:357–364.
  5. Abdella N, Khogali M, Al-Ali S, Gumaa K, Bajaj J: Known type 2 diabetes mellitus among the Kuwaiti population: a prevalence study. Acta Diabetol 1996;33:145–149.
  6. Moussa MA, Alsaeid M, Abdella N, Refai TM, Al-Sheikh N, Gomez JE: Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among Kuwaiti children and adolescents. Med Princ Pract 2008;17:270–275.
  7. Al-Nozha MM, Al-Maatouq MA, Al-Mazrou YY, et al: Diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J 2004;25:1603–1610.
  8. Amad S, Rosenthal T, Grossman E: The prevalence and awareness of hypertension among Israeli Arabs. J Hum Hypertens 1996;10 (suppl 3):S31–S33.

    External Resources

  9. Balasy ES, Radwan M: Prevalence on known diabetes mellitus among nationals in Abu Dhabi City. J Egypt Public Health Assoc 1990;65:633–642.
  10. Ostchega Y, Dillon CF, Hughes JP, Carroll M, Yoon S: Trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control in older US adults: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988 to 2004. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007;55:1056–1065.
  11. Abdulle A, Nagelkerke N, Abouchacra S, Pathan J, Adem A, Obineche E: Under-treatment and under-diagnosis of hypertension: a serious problem in the United Arab Emirates. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2006;6:24.
  12. Shah NM, Nathanson CA: Parental perceptions of costs and benefits of children as correlates of fertility in Kuwait. J Biosoc Sci 2004;36:663–682.
  13. Alwan A, King H: Diabetes in the eastern Mediterranean region. World Health Stat Q 1992;45:355–359.
  14. Abdella N, Luqman W, Adamson U, Rashed A, Fenech FF: Some demographic and therapeutic features of diabetes mellitus in Kuwait. Diabetes Res 1987;5:43–46.
  15. Jackson RT, Al-Mousa Z, Al-Raqua M, Prakash P, Muhanna A: Prevalence of coronary risk factors in healthy adult Kuwaitis. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2001;52:301–311.
  16. Bland SH, Krogh V, Winkelstein W, Trevisan M: Social network and blood pressure: a population study. Psychosom Med 1991;53:598–607.
  17. Tomaka J, Thompson S, Palacios R: The relation of social isolation, loneliness, and social support to disease outcomes among the elderly. J Aging Health 2006;18:359–384.
  18. Sabri S, Bener A, Eapen V, Abu Zeid MS, Al-Mazrouei AM, Singh J: Some risk factors for hypertension in the United Arab Emirates. East Mediterr Health J 2004;10:610–619.
  19. Sabri S, Bener A, Eapen V, Azhar AA, Abdishakure A, Singh J: Correlation between hypertension and income distribution among United Arab Emirates population. Med J Malaysia 2005;60:416–425.
  20. Lampe FC, Walker M, Lennon LT, Whincup PH, Ebrahim S: Validity of a self-reported history of doctor-diagnosed angina. J Clin Epidemiol 1999;52:73–81.
  21. Okura Y, Urban LH, Mahoney DW, Jacobsen SJ, Rodeheffer RJ: Agreement between self-report questionnaires and medical record data was substantial for diabetes, hypertension, myocardial infarction and stroke but not for heart failure. J Clin Epidemiol 2004;57:1096–1103.
  22. Al-Adsani A, Al-Faraj J, Al-Sultan F, et al: Evaluation of the impact of the Kuwait Diabetes Care Program on the quality of diabetes care. Med Princ Pract 2008;17:14–19.
  23. Junaid TA: Preface. Med Princ Pract 2002;11(suppl 2):1–2.

    External Resources

  

Author Contacts

Nasra M. Shah
Department of Community Medicine and Behavioral Sciences
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, PO Box 24923
13110 Safat (Kuwait)
Tel. +965 531 9485, Fax +965 533 8948, E-Mail nasra@hsc.edu.kw

  

Article Information

Received: January 14, 2009
Revised: June 1, 2009
Published online: February 04, 2010
Number of Print Pages : 8
Number of Figures : 0, Number of Tables : 4, Number of References : 23

  

Publication Details

Medical Principles and Practice (International Journal of the Kuwait University Health Sciences Centre)

Vol. 19, No. 2, Year 2010 (Cover Date: February 2010)

Journal Editor: Owunwanne A. (Kuwait)
ISSN: 1011-7571 (Print), eISSN: 1423-0151 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/MPP


Open Access License / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) (www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Abstract

Objective: To provide community-based information on the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and heart disease and to highlight their significant correlates. Materials and Methods: Data were collected in a cross-sectional household survey of 2,487 Kuwaiti nationals aged 50 and over in 2005/2006. A proportionately representative sample of 1,451 respondents from a relatively more urban area (Capital) and 1,036 respondents from a relatively less urban area (Ahmadi) were interviewed. A proxy respondent was used in 5.4% of cases. Among the 2,605 potentially eligible persons approached, 2,487 (95.5%) participated. Results: Doctor-diagnosed prevalences of hypertension, diabetes and heart disease in the two governorates were reported to be 53.4, 50.6 and 17.5%, respectively. If the prevalence in the two governorates is reflective of the nation, a remarkable increase seems to have occurred since 1996. The prevalence of each of the three diseases increased linearly by age among both sexes. Comorbidity of the three diseases increased from 3.6 to 9.4 and to 20.9% among those aged 50–59, 60–69 and ≧70 years, respectively. Logistic regression showed the prevalence of chronic illnesses to be significantly higher among persons who were older, retired, non-Bedouin, less educated, had higher income, were less socially active, were obese and had poorer exercise behavior. The prevalence of diabetes and heart disease was significantly lower among women than men. Conclusion: Judging from data on two governorates, the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and heart disease is likely to have increased to alarmingly high levels among older Kuwaitis, highlighting the need for focused intervention programs in order to reduce morbidity and increase healthy life years.

© 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel


  

Author Contacts

Nasra M. Shah
Department of Community Medicine and Behavioral Sciences
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, PO Box 24923
13110 Safat (Kuwait)
Tel. +965 531 9485, Fax +965 533 8948, E-Mail nasra@hsc.edu.kw

  

Article Information

Received: January 14, 2009
Revised: June 1, 2009
Published online: February 04, 2010
Number of Print Pages : 8
Number of Figures : 0, Number of Tables : 4, Number of References : 23

  

Publication Details

Medical Principles and Practice (International Journal of the Kuwait University Health Sciences Centre)

Vol. 19, No. 2, Year 2010 (Cover Date: February 2010)

Journal Editor: Owunwanne A. (Kuwait)
ISSN: 1011-7571 (Print), eISSN: 1423-0151 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/MPP


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: 1/14/2009
Accepted: 6/1/2009
Published online: 2/4/2010
Issue release date: February 2010

Number of Print Pages: 8
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 4

ISSN: 1011-7571 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0151 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/MPP


Open Access License / Drug Dosage

Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) (www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Public Authority for Civil Information: Directory of Population and Labor Force. Kuwait, Government of Kuwait, 2007.
  2. Ministry of Health: Health Kuwait. Kuwait, Health and Vital Statistics Division, Department of Statistics and Medical Records, 2005.
  3. Alnesef Y, Al-Rashoud RH, Farid SM: Kuwait Family Health Survey 1996: Principal Report (as part of Gulf Family Health Survey). Kuwait, Ministry of Health, 2000.
  4. El-Reshaid K, Al-Owaish R, Diab A: Hypertension in Kuwait: the past, present and future. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transplant 1999;10:357–364.
  5. Abdella N, Khogali M, Al-Ali S, Gumaa K, Bajaj J: Known type 2 diabetes mellitus among the Kuwaiti population: a prevalence study. Acta Diabetol 1996;33:145–149.
  6. Moussa MA, Alsaeid M, Abdella N, Refai TM, Al-Sheikh N, Gomez JE: Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among Kuwaiti children and adolescents. Med Princ Pract 2008;17:270–275.
  7. Al-Nozha MM, Al-Maatouq MA, Al-Mazrou YY, et al: Diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J 2004;25:1603–1610.
  8. Amad S, Rosenthal T, Grossman E: The prevalence and awareness of hypertension among Israeli Arabs. J Hum Hypertens 1996;10 (suppl 3):S31–S33.

    External Resources

  9. Balasy ES, Radwan M: Prevalence on known diabetes mellitus among nationals in Abu Dhabi City. J Egypt Public Health Assoc 1990;65:633–642.
  10. Ostchega Y, Dillon CF, Hughes JP, Carroll M, Yoon S: Trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control in older US adults: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988 to 2004. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007;55:1056–1065.
  11. Abdulle A, Nagelkerke N, Abouchacra S, Pathan J, Adem A, Obineche E: Under-treatment and under-diagnosis of hypertension: a serious problem in the United Arab Emirates. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2006;6:24.
  12. Shah NM, Nathanson CA: Parental perceptions of costs and benefits of children as correlates of fertility in Kuwait. J Biosoc Sci 2004;36:663–682.
  13. Alwan A, King H: Diabetes in the eastern Mediterranean region. World Health Stat Q 1992;45:355–359.
  14. Abdella N, Luqman W, Adamson U, Rashed A, Fenech FF: Some demographic and therapeutic features of diabetes mellitus in Kuwait. Diabetes Res 1987;5:43–46.
  15. Jackson RT, Al-Mousa Z, Al-Raqua M, Prakash P, Muhanna A: Prevalence of coronary risk factors in healthy adult Kuwaitis. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2001;52:301–311.
  16. Bland SH, Krogh V, Winkelstein W, Trevisan M: Social network and blood pressure: a population study. Psychosom Med 1991;53:598–607.
  17. Tomaka J, Thompson S, Palacios R: The relation of social isolation, loneliness, and social support to disease outcomes among the elderly. J Aging Health 2006;18:359–384.
  18. Sabri S, Bener A, Eapen V, Abu Zeid MS, Al-Mazrouei AM, Singh J: Some risk factors for hypertension in the United Arab Emirates. East Mediterr Health J 2004;10:610–619.
  19. Sabri S, Bener A, Eapen V, Azhar AA, Abdishakure A, Singh J: Correlation between hypertension and income distribution among United Arab Emirates population. Med J Malaysia 2005;60:416–425.
  20. Lampe FC, Walker M, Lennon LT, Whincup PH, Ebrahim S: Validity of a self-reported history of doctor-diagnosed angina. J Clin Epidemiol 1999;52:73–81.
  21. Okura Y, Urban LH, Mahoney DW, Jacobsen SJ, Rodeheffer RJ: Agreement between self-report questionnaires and medical record data was substantial for diabetes, hypertension, myocardial infarction and stroke but not for heart failure. J Clin Epidemiol 2004;57:1096–1103.
  22. Al-Adsani A, Al-Faraj J, Al-Sultan F, et al: Evaluation of the impact of the Kuwait Diabetes Care Program on the quality of diabetes care. Med Princ Pract 2008;17:14–19.
  23. Junaid TA: Preface. Med Princ Pract 2002;11(suppl 2):1–2.

    External Resources