Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 43, No. 2, 2010
Issue release date: February 2010
Section title: Original Paper
Psychopathology 2010;43:79–87
(DOI:10.1159/000274176)

Initial Orienting to Emotional Faces in Female Adolescents with Borderline Personality Disorder

von Ceumern-Lindenstjerna I.-A. · Brunner R. · Parzer P. · Mundt C. · Fiedler P. · Resch F.
Departments of aChild and Adolescent Psychiatry and bGeneral Psychiatry, Center for Psychosocial Medicine, University of Heidelberg, and cDepartment of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Psychological Institute, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany

Do you have an account?

Register and profit from personalized services (MyKarger) Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information









I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

Register and profit from personalized services (MyKarger) Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information









I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger (new!)
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
  • Reduced rates with a PPV account
read more

Direct: USD 38.00
Account: USD 26.50

Select

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restriction apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00

Select

Subscribe

  • Automatic perpetual access to all articles of the subscribed year(s)
  • Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Subcription rates


Select


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: 10/30/2007
Accepted: 7/23/2009
Published online: 1/9/2010

Number of Print Pages: 9
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 3

ISSN: 0254-4962 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-033X (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/PSP

Abstract

Background: Previous research has implicated a general hypervigilance for negative emotional words in adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) as compared to healthy controls. The purpose of this study was to assess initial orienting to negative and positive emotional faces in female adolescents with BPD. Method: Adolescent patients with BPD (n = 30), adolescent patients with other psychiatric diagnoses (n = 29) and adolescent healthy comparison subjects (n = 29) were tested with the visual dot probe task to examine attentional orienting to emotional and neutral faces. Results: In contrast to the adolescent healthy comparison subjects, both the adolescent patients with BPD and the adolescent patients with other psychiatric diagnoses showed a stronger orienting to negative emotional stimuli. However, no differences were found between the clinical groups. Data regarding positive stimuli showed that BPD is not associated with a specific orienting to positive faces. Conclusions: These findings suggest that attentional orienting to negative faces is not specific to adolescent patients with BPD but also affects adolescent patients with other psychiatric diagnoses. Furthermore, no distortion in information processing concerning positive cues was observed in adolescent patients with BPD. If these findings were confirmed, further BPD research could no longer assume that BPD is specifically associated with distortions in initial orienting processes.


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: 10/30/2007
Accepted: 7/23/2009
Published online: 1/9/2010

Number of Print Pages: 9
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 3

ISSN: 0254-4962 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-033X (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/PSP


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed 4, rev (DSM-IV-TR). Washington, APA, 2000.
  2. Linehan MM: Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder. New York, Guilford Press, 1993.
  3. Gross J: Emotion regulation: affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology 2002;39:281–291.
  4. Belsky J, Friedman SL, Hsieh KH: Testing a core emotion-regulation prediction: does early attentional persistence moderate the effect of infant negative emotionality on later development? Child Dev 2001;72:123–133.
  5. Compton RJ: Ability to disengage attention predicts negative affect. Cogn Emot 2000;14:401–415.
  6. Johnson MH, Posner MI, Rothbart MK: Components of visual orienting in early infancy: contingency learning, anticipatory looking, and disengaging. J Cogn Neurosci 1991;4:335–344.

    External Resources

  7. Matheny A, Riese M, Wilson RS: Rudiments of infant temperament: newborn to 9 months. Dev Psychol 1985;21:486–494.

    External Resources

  8. MacLeod C, Rutherford E, Campbell L, Ebsworthy G, Holker L: Selective attention and emotional vulnerability: assessing the causal basis of their association through the experimental manipulation of attentional bias. J Abnorm Psychol 2002;111:107–123.
  9. Bradley BP, Mogg K, White J, Groom C, de Bono J: Attentional bias for emotional faces in generalized anxiety disorder. Br J Clin Psychol 1999;38:267–278.
  10. Chen YP, Ehlers A, Clark DM, Mansell W: Patients with generalized social phobia direct their attention away from faces. Behav Res Ther 2002;40:677–687.
  11. Dalgleish T, Watts FN: Biases of attention and memory in disorders of anxiety and depression. Clin Psychol Rev 1990;10:589–604.

    External Resources

  12. MacLeod C: Mood disorders and cognition; in Eysenck M (ed): Cognitive Psychology: An International Review. New York, Wiley, 1990, pp 9–55.
  13. Williams JMG, Watts FN, MacLeod C, Mathews A: Cognitive Psychology and Emotional Disorders. Chichester, Wiley, 1997.
  14. Domes G, Winter B, Schnell K, Vohs K, Fast K, Herpertz SC: The influence of emotions on inhibitory functioning in borderline personality disorder. Psychol Med 2006;36:1163–1172.
  15. Derryberry D, Rothbart MK: Reactive and effortful processes in the organization of temperament. Dev Psychopathol 1997;9:633–652.
  16. Korfine L, Hooley JM: Directed forgetting of emotional stimuli in borderline personality disorder. J Abnorm Psychol 2000;109:214–221.
  17. Arntz A, Appels C, Sieswerda S: Hypervigilance in borderline disorder: a test with the emotional Stroop paradigm. J Pers Disord 2000;14:366–373.
  18. von Ceumern-Lindenstjerna IA, Brunner R, Parzer P, Fiedler P, Resch F: Borderline-Störung und Verzerrungen der Aufmerksamkeit: Theoretische Modelle und empirische Befunde. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2002;70:321–330.
  19. Dahl G: Reduzierter Wechsler-Intelligenztest (WIP). Bodenheim, Hain, 1972.
  20. Wechsler D: Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. San Antonio, Psychological Corp, 1999.
  21. Delmo C, Weiffenbach O, Gabriel M, Poustka F: Kiddie-Sads Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL): German Research Version, ed 3 (transl and adapt). Frankfurt a.M., University of Frankfurt, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2000.
  22. Chambers WJ, Puig-Antich J, Hirsch M, Paez P, Ambrosini PJ, Tabrizi MA, Davies M: The assessment of affective disorders in children and adolescents by semistructured interview: test-retest reliability of the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age-children, present episode version. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1985;42:696–702.
  23. Kaufman J, Birhamer B, Brend D, Rao U, Flynn C, Moreci P, Williamson D, Ryan N: The schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age-children – present and lifetime version (K-SADS): initial reliability and validity data. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry 1997;36:980–988.
  24. Fydrich T, Renneberg B, Schmitz B, Wittchen HU: SKID-II: Strukturiertes Klinisches Interview für DSM-IV. Achse II: Persönlichkeitsstörungen (Interviewheft). Göttingen, Hogrefe, 1997.
  25. First MB, Spitzer RL, Gibbon M, Williams JBW: User’s Guide for the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II). Washington, American Psychiatric Press, 1996.
  26. Steinhausen HC: Eine Skala zur Beurteilung psychisch gestörter Kinder und Jugendlicher. Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr 1985;13:230–240.
  27. Shaffer D, Gould M, Brasic J, Ambrosini P, Fisher P, Bird H, Aluwhalia S: A children’s global assessment scale (CGAS). Arch Gen Psychiatry 1983;40:1228–1231.
  28. Franke GH: SCL-90-R. Göttingen, Hogrefe, 1995.
  29. Stiensmeier-Pelster J, Schürmann M, Duda K: Depressions-Inventar für Kinder und Jugendliche (DIKJ). Testmappe und Handanweisung. Göttingen, Hogrefe, 1989.
  30. Melfsen S, Florin I, Warnke A: SPAIK: Sozialphobie und Angstinventar für Kinder. Göttingen, Hogrefe, 2001.
  31. Mogg K, Bradley BP: A cognitive-motivational analysis of anxiety. Behav Res Ther 1998;36:809–848.
  32. MacLeod C, Mathews A, Tata P: Attentional bias in emotional disorders. J Abnorm Psychol 1986;95:15–20.
  33. Posner MI, Snyder S, Davidson B: Attention and the detection of signals. J Exp Psychol Gen 1980;109:160–174.
  34. Navon D, Margalit B: Allocation of attention according to informativeness in visual recognition. Q J Exp Psychol A 1983;35:497–512.
  35. Mogg K, Bradley BP: Some methodological issues in assessing attentional biases for threatening faces in anxiety: a replication study using a modified version of the probe detection task. Behav Res Ther 1999;37:595–604.
  36. Bradley BP, Mogg K, Falla SJ, Hamilton LR: Attentional bias for threatening facial expressions in anxiety: manipulation of stimulus duration. Cogn Emot 1998;12:737–753.
  37. Mogg K, Bradley BP, Dixon C, Fisher S, Twelftree H, McWilliams A: Trait anxiety, defensiveness and selective processing of threat: an investigation using two measures of attentional bias. Pers Individ Dif 2000;28:1063–1077.
  38. Monk CS, Nelson EE, McClure EB, Mogg K, Bradley BP, Leibenluft E, Blair RJ, Chen G, Charney DS, Ernst M, Pine D: Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation and attention bias in response to angry faces in adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2006;163:1091–1097.
  39. Sanislow CA, Grilo CM, McGlashan TH: Factor analysis of the DSM-III-R borderline personality disorder criteria in psychiatric inpatients. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157:1629–1633.
  40. Sanislow CA, Grilo CM, Morey LC, Bender DS, Skodol AE, Gunderson JG, Shea T, Stout RL, Zanarini MC, McGlashan TH: Confirmatory factor analysis of DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder: findings from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study. Am J Psychiatry 2002;159:284–290.
  41. Pine D, Mogg K, Bradley BP, Montgomery LA, Monk CS, McClure E, Guyer AE, Ernst M, Charney DS, Kaufman J: Attention bias to threat in maltreated children: implications for vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. Am J Psychiatry 2005;162:291–296.
  42. Ekman P, Friesen W: Pictures of Facial Affect. Palo Alto, Consulting Psychologist Press, 1976.
  43. Bradley BP, Mogg K, Millar N: Covert and overt orienting of attention to emotional faces in anxiety. Cogn Emot 2000;14:789–808.
  44. Ratcliff R: Methods of dealing with reaction time outliers. Psychol Bull 1993;114:510–532.
  45. Dalgleish T, Watts FN: Biases of attention and memory in disorders of anxiety and depression. Clin Psychol Rev 1990;10:589–604.

    External Resources

  46. Stata Statistical Software, version 8.0. College Station, Stata Corp, 2003.
  47. Mather M, Carstensen LL: Aging and attentional biases for emotional faces. Psychol Sci 2003;14:409–415.
  48. Wagner AW, Linehan MM: Facial expression recognition ability among women with borderline personality disorder: implications for emotion regulation. J Pers Disord 1999;13:329–344.
  49. Levine D, Marziali E, Hood J: Emotion processing in borderline personality disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis 1997;185:240–246.
  50. Lynch TR, Kosson DS, Lejuez CW, Rosenthal MZ, Cheavens JS, Blair RJR: Heightened sensitivity to facial expressions of emotion in borderline personality disorder. Emotion 2006;6:647–655.
  51. Herpertz S, Dietrich T, Wenning B, Krings T, Erberich S, Willmes K, Thron A, Sass H: Evidence of abnormal amygdala functioning in borderline personality disorder: a functional MRI study. Biol Psychiatry 2001;50:292–298.
  52. Brunner R, von Ceumern-Lindenstjerna IA, Renneberg B, Resch F: Borderline-Persönlichkeitsstörung im Jugendalter: Klinische und klassifikatorische Probleme der Diagnosesicherung. Verhaltensther Verhaltensmed 2003;24:365–381.
  53. Levy KN, Becker DF, Grilo CM, Mattanah JJF, Garnet KE, Quinlan DM, Edell WS, McGlashan TH: Concurrent and predictive validity of the personality disorder diagnosis in adolescent inpatients. Am J Psychiatry 1999;156:1522–1528.
  54. Bradley R, Zittel Conklin C, Westen D: The borderline personality diagnosis in adolescents: gender differences and subtypes. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2005;46:1006–1019.