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Vol. 56, No. 2, 2010
Issue release date: March 2010
Section title: Original Paper
Free Access
Ann Nutr Metab 2010;56:91–98
(DOI:10.1159/000275962)

Evaluation of the Effect of Four Fibers on Laxation, Gastrointestinal Tolerance and Serum Markers in Healthy Humans

Stewart M.L.a · Nikhanj S.D.a · Timm D.A.a · Thomas W.b · Slavin J.L.a
aDepartment of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minn., and bDivision of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn., USA
email Corresponding Author

Abstract

Background: Average dietary fiber intake in the United States is roughly half of the recommended amount. As new dietary fiber products are introduced to increase fiber intake, it is critical to evaluate the physiological effects of such fibers. Aims: This study examined the effect of 4 fibers derived from maize or tapioca on fecal chemistry, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and serum markers of chronic disease. Methods: Twenty healthy subjects completed the single-blind crossover study in which 12 g/day of fiber (pullulan, Promitor™ Resistant Starch, soluble fiber dextrin or Promitor Soluble Corn Fiber) or placebo (maltodextrin) were consumed for 14 days followed by a 21-day washout. GI symptom surveys were completed (days 3 and 14), stools were collected (days 11–14), diet was recorded (days 12–14) and fasting blood samples were obtained (day 15). Results: The 4 test fibers were well tolerated, with mild to moderate GI symptoms. Total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations did not differ among the treatments. Fecal pH and individual SCFAs were affected by some treatments. Stool weight and serum markers of chronic disease did not change with these treatments. Conclusion: Increasing fiber intake by 12 g/day was well tolerated and may have a positive impact on colon health due to fermentation.

© 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel


  

Key Words

  • Pullulan
  • Resistant starch
  • Short-chain fatty acids
  • Gas production
  • Cholesterol
  • Ghrelin

References

  1. Lembo A, Camilleri M: Chronic constipation. N Engl J Med 2003;349:1360–1368.
  2. Queenan KM, Stewart ML, Smith KN, Thomas W, Fulcher RG, Slavin JL: Concentrated oat beta-glucan, a fermentable fiber, lowers serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults in a randomized controlled trial. Nutr J 2007;6:6.
  3. Variyam JN: Factors affecting the macronutrient intake of US adults. Washington, United States Department of Agriculture, 2003, Technical Bulletin 1901.
  4. Institute of Medicine: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrates, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, National Academies Press, 2005.
  5. McNeil NI: The contribution of the large intestine to energy supplies in man. Am J Clin Nutr 1984;39:338–342.
  6. Flood MT, Auerbach MH, Craig SAS: A review of the clinical toleration studies of polydextrose in food. Food Chem Toxicol 2004;42:1531–1542.
  7. Livesey G: Tolerance of low-digestible carbohydrates: a general view. Br J Nutr 2001;85:S7–S16.
  8. Stewart ML, Slavin JL: Novel maize-based dietary fibers have comparable in vitro fermentability to inulin and partially-hydrolyzed guar gum. FASEB J 2007;21:368.7.
  9. Whelan K, Judd PA, Taylor MA: Assessment of faecal output in patients receiving enteral tube feeding: validation of a novel chart. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004;58:130–137.

    External Resources

  10. Schneider SM, Girard-Pipau F, Anty R, van der Linde EGM, Philipsen-Geerling BJ, Knol J, Filippi J, Arab K, Hebuterne X: Effects of total enteral nutrition supplemented with a multi-fibre mix on faecal short-chain fatty acids and microbiota. Clin Nutr 2006;25:82–90.
  11. Geleva D, Thomas W, Gannon MC, Keenan JM: A solubilized cellulose fiber decreases peak postprandial cholecystokinin concentrations after a liquid mixed meal in hypercholesterolemic men and women. J Nutr 2003;133:2194–2203.
  12. Tomlin J, Read NW: The relation between bacterial degradation of viscous polysaccharides and stool output in human beings. Br J Nutr 1988;60:467–475.
  13. van den Heuvel EG, Wils D, Pasman WJ, Bakker M, Saniez MH, Kardinaal AF: Short-term digestive tolerance of different doses of NUTRIOSE FB, a food dextrin, in adult men. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004;58:1046–1055.
  14. Jenkins DJ, Vuksan V, Kendall CW, Wursch P, Jeffcoat R, Waring S, Mehling CC, Vidgen E, Augustin LS, Wong E: Physiological effects of resistant starches on fecal bulk, short chain fatty acids, blood lipids and glycemic index. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:609–616.
  15. Storey D, Lee A, Bornet F, Brouns F: Gastrointestinal responses following acute and medium term intake of retrograded resistant maltodextrins, classified as type 3 resistant starch. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007;61:1262–1270.
  16. Cummings JH, Beatty ER, Kingman SM, Bingham SA, Englyst HA: Digestion and physiological properties of resistant starch in the human large bowel. Br J Nutr 1996;75:733–747.
  17. Chen HL, Cheng HC, Liu YJ, Liu SY, Wu WT: Konjac acts as a natural laxative by increasing stool bulk and improving colonic ecology in healthy adults. Nutrition 2006;22:1112–1119.
  18. Macfarlane GT, Gibson GT: Microbiology in the large bowel; in Cummings JH, Rombeau JL, Sakata T (eds): Physiological and Clinical Aspects of Short-Chain Fatty Acids. New York, Cambridge University Press, 1995.
  19. Walker AW, Duncan SH, McWilliam Leitch EC, Child MW, Flint HJ: pH and peptide supply can radically alter bacterial populations and short-chain fatty acid ratios within microbial communities from the human colon. Appl Environ Microbiol 2005;71:3692–3700.
  20. Christl SU, Katzenmaier U, Hylla S, Kasper H, Scheppach W: In vitro fermentation of high-amylose cornstarch by a mixed population of colonic bacteria. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1997;21:290–295.
  21. Phillips J, Muir JG, Birkett A, Lu ZX, Jones GP, O’Dea K, Young GP: Effect of resistant starch on fecal bulk and fermentation-dependent events in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62:121–130.
  22. Pasman W, Wils D, Saniez MH, Kardinaal A: Long-term gastrointestinal tolerance of NUTRIOSE FB in healthy men. Eur J Clin Nutr 2006;60:1024–1034.
  23. Hylla S, Gostner A, Dusel G, Anger H, Bartram HP, Christl SU, Kasper H, Scheppach W: Effects of resistant starch on the colon in healthy volunteers: possible implications for cancer prevention. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:136–142.
  24. Muir JG, Lu ZX, Young GP, Cameron-Smith D, Collier GR, O’Dea K: Resistant starch in the diet increases breath hydrogen and serum acetate in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:792–799.
  25. Vermorel M, Coudray C, Wils D, Sinaud S, Tressol JC, Montaurier C, Vernet J, Brandolini M, Bouteloup-Demange C, Rayssiguier Y: Energy value of a low-digestible carbohydrate, NUTRIOSE FB, and its impact on magnesium, calcium and zinc apparent absorption and retention in healthy young men. Eur J Nutr 2004;43:344–352.
  26. Tomlin J, Read NW: The effect of resistant starch on colon function in humans. Br J Nutr 1990;64:589–595.
  27. Spears JK, Karr-Lilienthal LK, Bauer LL, Murphy MR, Fahey GC Jr: In vitro fermentation characteristics of selected glucose-based polymers by canine and human fecal bacteria. Arch Anim Nutr 2007;61:61–73.
  28. National Cholesterol Education Program, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health: Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). NIH Publication No. 02-5215. Bethesda, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2002.
  29. Behall KM, Howe JC: Effect of long-term consumption of amylose vs. amylopectin starch on metabolic variables in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:334–340.
  30. Behall KM, Scholfield DJ, Yuhaniak I, Canary J: Diets containing high amylose vs. amylopectin starch: effects on metabolic variables in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;49:337–344.
  31. Noakes M, Clifton PM, Nestel PJ, Le Leu R, McIntosh G: Effect of high-amylose starch and oat bran on metabolic variables and bowel function in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;64:944–951.
  32. Higgins JA, Higbee DR, Donahoo WT, Brown IL, Bell ML, Bessesen DH: Resistant starch consumption promotes lipid oxidation. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2004;1:8.
  33. Park OJ, Kang NE, Chang MJ, Kim WK: Resistant starch supplementation influences blood lipid concentrations and glucose control in overweight subjects. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2004;50:93–99.
  34. Wolf BW, Garleb KA, Choe YS, Humphrey PM, Maki KC: Pullulan is a slowly digested carbohydrate in humans. J Nutr 2003;133:1151–1155.
  35. Garcia AL, Otto B, Reich SC, Weickert MO, Steiniger J, Machowetz A, Rudovich NN, Mohlig M, Katz N, Speth M, Meuser F, Doerfer J, Zunft HJ, Pfeiffer AH, Koebnick C: Arabinoxylan consumption decreases postprandial serum glucose, serum insulin and plasma total ghrelin response in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007;61:334–341.
  36. Robertson MD, Bickerton AS, Dennis AL, Vidal H, Frayn KN: Insulin-sensitizing effects of dietary resistant starch and effects on skeletal muscle and adipose tissue metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;82:559–567.

  

Author Contacts

Joanne L. Slavin
1334 Eckles Avenue
St. Paul, MN 55108 (USA)
Tel. +1 612 624 7234, Fax +1 612 625 5272
E-Mail jslavin@umn.edu

  

Article Information

Received: April 17, 2009
Accepted after revision: November 10, 2009
Published online: January 19, 2010
Number of Print Pages : 8
Number of Figures : 0, Number of Tables : 6, Number of References : 36

  

Publication Details

Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism (Journal of Nutrition, Metabolic Diseases and Dietetics)

Vol. 56, No. 2, Year 2010 (Cover Date: March 2010)

Journal Editor: Elmadfa I. (Vienna)
ISSN: 0250-6807 (Print), eISSN: 1421-9697 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/ANM


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References

  1. Lembo A, Camilleri M: Chronic constipation. N Engl J Med 2003;349:1360–1368.
  2. Queenan KM, Stewart ML, Smith KN, Thomas W, Fulcher RG, Slavin JL: Concentrated oat beta-glucan, a fermentable fiber, lowers serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults in a randomized controlled trial. Nutr J 2007;6:6.
  3. Variyam JN: Factors affecting the macronutrient intake of US adults. Washington, United States Department of Agriculture, 2003, Technical Bulletin 1901.
  4. Institute of Medicine: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrates, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, National Academies Press, 2005.
  5. McNeil NI: The contribution of the large intestine to energy supplies in man. Am J Clin Nutr 1984;39:338–342.
  6. Flood MT, Auerbach MH, Craig SAS: A review of the clinical toleration studies of polydextrose in food. Food Chem Toxicol 2004;42:1531–1542.
  7. Livesey G: Tolerance of low-digestible carbohydrates: a general view. Br J Nutr 2001;85:S7–S16.
  8. Stewart ML, Slavin JL: Novel maize-based dietary fibers have comparable in vitro fermentability to inulin and partially-hydrolyzed guar gum. FASEB J 2007;21:368.7.
  9. Whelan K, Judd PA, Taylor MA: Assessment of faecal output in patients receiving enteral tube feeding: validation of a novel chart. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004;58:130–137.

    External Resources

  10. Schneider SM, Girard-Pipau F, Anty R, van der Linde EGM, Philipsen-Geerling BJ, Knol J, Filippi J, Arab K, Hebuterne X: Effects of total enteral nutrition supplemented with a multi-fibre mix on faecal short-chain fatty acids and microbiota. Clin Nutr 2006;25:82–90.
  11. Geleva D, Thomas W, Gannon MC, Keenan JM: A solubilized cellulose fiber decreases peak postprandial cholecystokinin concentrations after a liquid mixed meal in hypercholesterolemic men and women. J Nutr 2003;133:2194–2203.
  12. Tomlin J, Read NW: The relation between bacterial degradation of viscous polysaccharides and stool output in human beings. Br J Nutr 1988;60:467–475.
  13. van den Heuvel EG, Wils D, Pasman WJ, Bakker M, Saniez MH, Kardinaal AF: Short-term digestive tolerance of different doses of NUTRIOSE FB, a food dextrin, in adult men. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004;58:1046–1055.
  14. Jenkins DJ, Vuksan V, Kendall CW, Wursch P, Jeffcoat R, Waring S, Mehling CC, Vidgen E, Augustin LS, Wong E: Physiological effects of resistant starches on fecal bulk, short chain fatty acids, blood lipids and glycemic index. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:609–616.
  15. Storey D, Lee A, Bornet F, Brouns F: Gastrointestinal responses following acute and medium term intake of retrograded resistant maltodextrins, classified as type 3 resistant starch. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007;61:1262–1270.
  16. Cummings JH, Beatty ER, Kingman SM, Bingham SA, Englyst HA: Digestion and physiological properties of resistant starch in the human large bowel. Br J Nutr 1996;75:733–747.
  17. Chen HL, Cheng HC, Liu YJ, Liu SY, Wu WT: Konjac acts as a natural laxative by increasing stool bulk and improving colonic ecology in healthy adults. Nutrition 2006;22:1112–1119.
  18. Macfarlane GT, Gibson GT: Microbiology in the large bowel; in Cummings JH, Rombeau JL, Sakata T (eds): Physiological and Clinical Aspects of Short-Chain Fatty Acids. New York, Cambridge University Press, 1995.
  19. Walker AW, Duncan SH, McWilliam Leitch EC, Child MW, Flint HJ: pH and peptide supply can radically alter bacterial populations and short-chain fatty acid ratios within microbial communities from the human colon. Appl Environ Microbiol 2005;71:3692–3700.
  20. Christl SU, Katzenmaier U, Hylla S, Kasper H, Scheppach W: In vitro fermentation of high-amylose cornstarch by a mixed population of colonic bacteria. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1997;21:290–295.
  21. Phillips J, Muir JG, Birkett A, Lu ZX, Jones GP, O’Dea K, Young GP: Effect of resistant starch on fecal bulk and fermentation-dependent events in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62:121–130.
  22. Pasman W, Wils D, Saniez MH, Kardinaal A: Long-term gastrointestinal tolerance of NUTRIOSE FB in healthy men. Eur J Clin Nutr 2006;60:1024–1034.
  23. Hylla S, Gostner A, Dusel G, Anger H, Bartram HP, Christl SU, Kasper H, Scheppach W: Effects of resistant starch on the colon in healthy volunteers: possible implications for cancer prevention. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:136–142.
  24. Muir JG, Lu ZX, Young GP, Cameron-Smith D, Collier GR, O’Dea K: Resistant starch in the diet increases breath hydrogen and serum acetate in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:792–799.
  25. Vermorel M, Coudray C, Wils D, Sinaud S, Tressol JC, Montaurier C, Vernet J, Brandolini M, Bouteloup-Demange C, Rayssiguier Y: Energy value of a low-digestible carbohydrate, NUTRIOSE FB, and its impact on magnesium, calcium and zinc apparent absorption and retention in healthy young men. Eur J Nutr 2004;43:344–352.
  26. Tomlin J, Read NW: The effect of resistant starch on colon function in humans. Br J Nutr 1990;64:589–595.
  27. Spears JK, Karr-Lilienthal LK, Bauer LL, Murphy MR, Fahey GC Jr: In vitro fermentation characteristics of selected glucose-based polymers by canine and human fecal bacteria. Arch Anim Nutr 2007;61:61–73.
  28. National Cholesterol Education Program, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health: Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). NIH Publication No. 02-5215. Bethesda, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2002.
  29. Behall KM, Howe JC: Effect of long-term consumption of amylose vs. amylopectin starch on metabolic variables in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:334–340.
  30. Behall KM, Scholfield DJ, Yuhaniak I, Canary J: Diets containing high amylose vs. amylopectin starch: effects on metabolic variables in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;49:337–344.
  31. Noakes M, Clifton PM, Nestel PJ, Le Leu R, McIntosh G: Effect of high-amylose starch and oat bran on metabolic variables and bowel function in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;64:944–951.
  32. Higgins JA, Higbee DR, Donahoo WT, Brown IL, Bell ML, Bessesen DH: Resistant starch consumption promotes lipid oxidation. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2004;1:8.
  33. Park OJ, Kang NE, Chang MJ, Kim WK: Resistant starch supplementation influences blood lipid concentrations and glucose control in overweight subjects. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2004;50:93–99.
  34. Wolf BW, Garleb KA, Choe YS, Humphrey PM, Maki KC: Pullulan is a slowly digested carbohydrate in humans. J Nutr 2003;133:1151–1155.
  35. Garcia AL, Otto B, Reich SC, Weickert MO, Steiniger J, Machowetz A, Rudovich NN, Mohlig M, Katz N, Speth M, Meuser F, Doerfer J, Zunft HJ, Pfeiffer AH, Koebnick C: Arabinoxylan consumption decreases postprandial serum glucose, serum insulin and plasma total ghrelin response in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007;61:334–341.
  36. Robertson MD, Bickerton AS, Dennis AL, Vidal H, Frayn KN: Insulin-sensitizing effects of dietary resistant starch and effects on skeletal muscle and adipose tissue metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;82:559–567.