Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 44, No. 1, 2010
Issue release date: March 2010

Relationships between Fluoride Intake, Urinary Fluoride Excretion and Fluoride Retention in Children and Adults: An Analysis of Available Data

Villa A. · Anabalon M. · Zohouri V. · Maguire A. · Franco A.M. · Rugg-Gunn A.
To view the fulltext, log in and/or choose pay-per-view option

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between total daily fluoride intake (TDFI), daily urinary fluoride excretion (DUFE) and fractional fluoride retention (FFR) using available data, in order to clarify the ability of DUFE to predict TDFI and, therefore, the risk of fluorosis development. Examination of published reports of simultaneous measurement of TDFI and DUFE, together with data from two unpublished Chilean studies, yielded data for 212 children aged less than 7 years and for 283 adults aged 18–75 years, providing a total of 212 and 269 data points, respectively. The relationship between DUFE and TDFI was studied for children and adults, separately. Daily fluoride retention (DFR) was estimated as a function of TDFI in children and adults assuming an average 90% fluoride absorption, and the numerical relationships between the estimated FFR and the TDFI were explored. Limiting FFR values of 0.55 and 0.36 were found for children and adults, respectively, above a threshold of TDFI of 0.5 and 2 mg, respectively. Neutral fluoride balances were predicted when the TDFI was equal to approximately 0.07 mg F/day for children and 0.8 mg F/day for adults. For children and adults, it is possible to obtain reasonably good estimations of community-based TDFI and DFR, using DUFE data. The advantages and limitations of these relationships, together with the need for future studies, are discussed.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. American Academy of Pediatrics: Committee on nutrition, fluoride supplementation. Pediatrics 1986;77:758–761.
  2. Awadia AK, Haugejordan O, Bjorvatn K, Birkeland JM: Vegetarianism and dental fluorosis in a high fluoride area of northern Tanzania. Int J Paediatr Dent 1999;9:3–11.
  3. Burt BA: The changing patterns of systemic fluoride intake. J Dent Res 1992;71(spec issue):1228–1237.
  4. Burt BA, Fejerskov O: Water fluoridation; in Fejerskov O, Ekstrand J, Burt B (eds): Fluoride in Dentistry, ed 2. Copenhagen, Munksgaard, 1996, pp 275–290.
  5. Do LG, Spencer AJ: Risk-benefit balance in the use of fluoride among young children. J Dent Res 2007;86:723–728.
  6. Ekstrand J: Fluoride metabolism; in Fejerskov O, Ekstrand J, Burt B (eds): Fluoride in Dentistry, ed 2. Copenhagen, Munksgaard, 1996, pp 55–68.
  7. Ekstrand J, Hardell LI, Spak CJ: Fluoride balance studies on infants in a 1-ppm-water-fluoride area. Caries Res 1984;18:87–92.
  8. Ekstrand J, Ziegler EE, Nelson SE, Fomon SJ: Absorption and retention of dietary and supplemental fluoride by infants. Adv Dent Res 1994;8:175–180.
  9. Fawell J, Bailey K, Chilton J, Dahi E, Fewtrell L, Magara Y: Fluoride in Drinking Water. London, WHO, IWA Publishing, 2006.
  10. Franco AM, Saldarriaga A, Martignon S, González MC, Villa AE: Fluoride intake and fractional urinary fluoride excretion of Colombian preschool children. Community Dent Health 2005;22:272–278.
  11. Haftenberger M, Viergutz G, Neumeister V, Hetzer G: Total fluoride intake and urinary excretion in German children aged 3–6 years. Caries Res 2001;35:451–457.
  12. Hodge HC, Smith FA: Occupational fluoride exposure. J Occup Med 1977;19:12–39.
  13. Maguire A, Zohouri FV, Hindmarch PN, Hatts J, Moynihan PJ: Fluoride intake and urinary excretion in 6- to 7-year-old children living in optimally, sub-optimally and non-fluoridated areas. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2007;35:479–488.
  14. Maheshwari UR, McDonald JT, Schneider VS, Brunetti AJ, Leybin L, Newbrun E, Hodge HC: Fluoride balance studies in ambulatory healthy men with and without fluoride supplements. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:2679–2684.
  15. Marthaler TM (ed): Monitoring of renal fluoride excretion in community preventive programmes on oral health. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1999.
  16. Levy SM, Warren JJ, Davies CS, Kirchner L, Kanellis MJ, Wefel JS: Patterns of fluoride intake from birth to 36 months. J Public Health Dent 2001;61:70–77.
  17. National Research Council: Fluoride in drinking water: a scientific review of EPA’s standards. Committee on fluoride in drinking water. Washington DC, National Academies Press, 2006.
  18. Ockerse T: Endemic Fluorosis in South Africa; thesis, University of Witwatersrand, Pretoria, Government Printers, 1946.
  19. Rodrigues MHC, Leite AL, Arana A, Villena RS, Forte FDS, Sampaio FC, Buzalaf MAR: Dietary fluoride intake by children receiving different sources of systemic fluoride. J Dent Res 2009;88:142–145.
  20. Spencer H, Lewin I, Wiatrowski E, Samachson J: Fluoride metabolism in man. Am J Med 1970;49:807–813.
  21. Spencer H, Kramer L, Osis D, Wiatrowski E: Excretion of retained fluoride in man. J Appl Physiol 1975;38:282–287.
  22. Srikantia SG, Siddiqui AH: Metabolic studies in skeletal fluorosis. Clin Sci 1965;28:477–485.
  23. Villa AE, Anabalón M, Cabezas L: The fractional urinary fluoride excretion in young children under stable fluoride intake conditions. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2000;28:344–355.
  24. Villa AE, Anabalón M, Rugg-Gunn A: Fractional urinary fluoride excretion of young female adults during the diurnal and nocturnal periods. Caries Res 2008;42:275–281.
  25. Villa AE, Cabezas L, Anabalón M, Garza E: The fractional urinary fluoride excretion of adolescents and adults under customary fluoride intake conditions, in a community with 0.6 mg F/l in its drinking water. Community Dent Health 2004;21:11–18.

    External Resources

  26. Whelton HP, Ketley CE, McSweeney F, O’Mullane DM: A review of fluorosis in the European Union: prevalence, risk factors and aesthetic issues. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2004;32(suppl 1):9–18.
  27. Whitford GM: The physiological and toxicological characteristics of fluoride. J Dent Res 1990;69(spec issue):539–549.
  28. Whitford GM: The Metabolism and Toxicity of Fluoride, ed 2, revised. Basel, Karger, 1996.
  29. WHO: Fluorides and oral health. Technical Report Series 846. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1994.
  30. Zohouri FV, Maguire A, Moynihan PJ: Fluoride content of still bottled waters available in the north-east of England, UK. Br Dent J 2003;195:515–518.
  31. Zohouri FV, Rugg-Gunn AJ: Total fluoride intake and urinary excretion in 4-year-old Iranian children residing in low-fluoride areas. Br J Nutr 2000;83:15–25.
  32. Zohouri FV, Swinbank CM, Maguire A, Moynihan PJ: Is the fluoride/creatinine ratio of a spot urine sample indicative of 24-h urinary fluoride? Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2006;34:130–138.


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50