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Vol. 17, No. 5, 2010
Issue release date: May 2010
Neuroimmunomodulation 2010;17:314–324

Molecular Inflammatory Mediators in Peripheral Nerve Degeneration and Regeneration

Cámara-Lemarroy C.R. · Guzmán-de la Garza F.J. · Fernández-Garza N.E.
Department of Physiology, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, School of Medicine, Monterrey, Mexico

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Wallerian degeneration, the self-destructive set of cellular and molecular processes by which degenerating axons and myelin are cleared after injury, is initiated by macrophages and Schwann cells. Molecular inflammatory mediators such as cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α, among others), transcription factors (NF-ĸB, c-Jun), the complement system and arachidonic acid metabolites have been shown to modulate these processes in various studies. However, the exact role that each of these mediators plays during axonal degeneration and regeneration has not been fully established. Understanding the molecular basis of these interactions between the immune system and peripheral nerve injury would open the possibility of targeting these inflammatory mediators as therapeutic interventions. In this review we attempt to integrate the current evidence generated around this issue, and to explore the therapeutic possibilities that arise.

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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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