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Caries Res 2010;44:116–126

Influence of Cranberry Proanthocyanidins on Formation of Biofilms by Streptococcus mutans on Saliva-Coated Apatitic Surface and on Dental Caries Development in vivo

Koo H.a–c · Duarte S.a · Murata R.M.a · Scott-Anne K.b · Gregoire S.b · Watson G.E.a · Singh A.P.d · Vorsa N.d, e
aEastman Department of Dentistry, bCenter for Oral Biology, and cDepartment of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, N.Y., dDepartment of Plant Biology and Plant Pathology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J., and ePhilip E. Marucci Center for Blueberry and Cranberry Research and Extension, Rutgers University, Chatsworth, N.J., USA
email Corresponding Author

 goto top of outline Key Words

  • Biofilm
  • Cranberry
  • Dental caries
  • Extracellular matrix
  • Glucans
  • Glucosyltransferases
  • Proanthocyanidins

 goto top of outline Abstract

Cranberry crude extracts, in various vehicles, have shown inhibitory effects on the formation of oral biofilms in vitro. The presence of proanthocyanidins (PAC) in cranberry extracts has been linked to biological activities against specific virulence attributes of Streptococcus mutans, e.g. the inhibition of glucosyltransferase (Gtf) activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of a highly purified and chemically defined cranberry PAC fraction on S. mutans biofilm formation on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite surface, and on dental caries development in Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, we examined the ability of specific PAC (ranging from low-molecular-weight monomers and dimers to high-molecular-weight oligomers/polymers) to inhibit GtfB activity and glycolytic pH drop by S. mutans cells, in an attempt to identify specific bioactive compounds. Topical applications (60-second exposure, twice daily) with PAC (1.5 mg/ml) during biofilm formation resulted in less biomass and fewer insoluble polysaccharides than the biofilms treated with vehicle control had (10% ethanol, v/v; p < 0.05). The incidence of smooth-surface caries in rats was significantly reduced by PAC treatment (twice daily), and resulted in less severe carious lesions compared to the vehicle control group (p < 0.05); the animals treated with PAC also showed significantly less caries severity on sulcal surfaces (p < 0.05). Furthermore, specific A-type PAC oligomers (dimers to dodecamers; 0.1 mg/ml) effectively diminished the synthesis of insoluble glucans by GtfB adsorbed on a saliva-coated hydroxyapatite surface, and also affected bacterial glycolysis. Our data show that cranberry PAC reduced the formation of biofilms by S. mutans in vitro and dental caries development in vivo, which may be attributed to the presence of specific bioactive A-type dimers and oligomers.

Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel

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 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Hyun Koo
University of Rochester Medical Center
Center for Oral Biology, 601 Elmwood Avenue
Box 611, Rochester, NY 14620 (USA)
Tel. +1 585 273 4216, Fax +1 585 276 0190, E-Mail

 goto top of outline Article Information

Received: September 11, 2009
Accepted after revision: January 27, 2010
Published online: March 16, 2010
Number of Print Pages : 11
Number of Figures : 2, Number of Tables : 4, Number of References : 56

 goto top of outline Publication Details

Caries Research

Vol. 44, No. 2, Year 2010 (Cover Date: May 2010)

Journal Editor: Beighton D. (London)
ISSN: 0008-6568 (Print), eISSN: 1421-976X (Online)

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