Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen (Ag) present and expressed in normal epithelium and epithelial tissues is used primarily as tumor marker of SCC of the uterine cervix. In this review, we considered factors interfering in vitro with the collection of samples and assay procedures, benign and malignant nongynecological diseases which may be the cause of elevated serum levels of SCC Ag. Contamination with skin or saliva strongly influences SCC Ag levels. SCC Ag is elevated in several benign lesions, including pulmonary (tuberculosis, adult respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary infiltration with eosinophilia, sarcoidosis, bronchogenic cyst) and skin (eczema, pemphigus, erythroderma epidermitis, psoriasis) diseases. Elevations are observed in SCC malignancies of the head and neck, esophagus, skin, lung, urothelium, anal canal and vulva.
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