The renal microvasculature is composed of the glomerular and peritubular capillary beds which supply the cellular constituents of the kidney with oxygen and nutrients as well as maintain renal function by providing an adequate glomerular filtration rate. As a result, endothelial dysfunction within the kidney can lead to devastating consequences. Recently, a plethora of information regarding the molecular players involved in kidney microvasculature development and disease has emerged. Many of these studies focus on intricate signaling pathways within the local microenvironment of endothelial cells. Here, we highlight some of these studies and relate them to the molecular pathogenesis of glomerular and peritubular endothelialcells in both native and transplant renal diseases.
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