Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.

Login with Facebook

Forgot Password? Reset your password

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login (Shibboleth)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Table of Contents
Vol. 2, No. 4, 2010
Issue release date: June 2010
Section title: Review
Editor's Choice -- Free Access
J Innate Immun 2010;2:325–333

Emerging Role of IL-17 in Atherosclerosis

Chen S. · Crother T.R. · Arditi M.
Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Burns and Allen Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, Calif., USA
email Corresponding Author

Prof. Dr. Moshe Arditi

Department of Pediatrics, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

North Tower, 8700 Beverly Blvd.

Los Angeles, CA 90048 (USA)

Tel. +1 310 423 4471, Fax +1 818 784 2582, E-Mail moshe.arditi@cshs.org


  1. Hansson GK, Libby P, Schonbeck U, Yan ZQ: Innate and adaptive immunity in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Circ Res 2002;91:281–291.
  2. van der Wal AC, Das PK, Bentz van de Berg D, van der Loos CM, Becker AE: Atherosclerotic lesions in humans. In situ immunophenotypic analysis suggesting an immune mediated response. Lab Invest 1989;61:166–170.
  3. Kovanen PT, Kaartinen M, Paavonen T: Infiltrates of activated mast cells at the site of coronary atheromatous erosion or rupture in myocardial infarction. Circulation 1995;92:1084–1088.
  4. Hansson GK: Inflammation, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 2005;352:1685–1695.
  5. Vanderlaan PA, Reardon CA: Thematic review series: the immune system and atherogenesis. The unusual suspects: an overview of the minor leukocyte populations in atherosclerosis. J Lipid Res 2005;46:829–838.
  6. Wick G, Knoflach M, Xu Q: Autoimmune and inflammatory mechanisms in atherosclerosis. Annu Rev Immunol 2004;22:361–403.
  7. Coffman RL: Origins of the t(h)1-t(h)2 model: a personal perspective. Nat Immunol 2006;7:539–541.
  8. O’Connor W Jr, Kamanaka M, Booth CJ, Town T, Nakae S, Iwakura Y, Kolls JK, Flavell RA: A protective function for interleukin 17A in T cell-mediated intestinal inflammation. Nat Immunol 2009;10:603–609.
  9. Kolls JK, Linden A: Interleukin-17 family members and inflammation. Immunity 2004;21:467–476.
  10. Moseley TA, Haudenschild DR, Rose L, Reddi AH: Interleukin-17 family and IL-17 receptors. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2003;14:155–174.
  11. Niess JH, Leithauser F, Adler G, Reimann J: Commensal gut flora drives the expansion of proinflammatory CD4 T cells in the colonic lamina propria under normal and inflammatory conditions. J Immunol 2008;180:559–568.
  12. Ivanov, II, Atarashi K, Manel N, Brodie EL, Shima T, Karaoz U, Wei D, Goldfarb KC, Santee CA, Lynch SV, Tanoue T, Imaoka A, Itoh K, Takeda K, Umesaki Y, Honda K, Littman DR: Induction of intestinal Th17 cells by segmented filamentous bacteria. Cell 2009;139:485–498.
  13. Kullberg MC, Jankovic D, Feng CG, Hue S, Gorelick PL, McKenzie BS, Cua DJ, Powrie F, Cheever AW, Maloy KJ, Sher A: IL-23 plays a key role in Helicobacter hepaticus-induced T cell-dependent colitis. J Exp Med 2006;203:2485–2494.
  14. Taleb S, Romain M, Ramkhelawon B, Uyttenhove C, Pasterkamp G, Herbin O, Esposito B, Perez N, Yasukawa H, Van Snick J, Yoshimura A, Tedgui A, Mallat Z: Loss of SOCS3 expression in T cells reveals a regulatory role for interleukin-17 in atherosclerosis. J Exp Med 2009;206:2067–2077.
  15. van Es T, van Puijvelde GH, Ramos OH, Segers FM, Joosten LA, van den Berg WB, Michon IM, de Vos P, van Berkel TJ, Kuiper J: Attenuated atherosclerosis upon IL-17R signaling disruption in LDLr deficient mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2009;388:261–265.
  16. Erbel C, Chen L, Bea F, Wangler S, Celik S, Lasitschka F, Wang Y, Bockler D, Katus HA, Dengler TJ: Inhibition of IL-17A attenuates atherosclerotic lesion development in apoE-deficient mice. J Immunol 2009;183:8167–8175.
  17. Cybulsky MI, Gimbrone MA Jr: Endothelial expression of a mononuclear leukocyte adhesion molecule during atherogenesis. Science 1991;251:788–791.
  18. Nakashima Y, Raines EW, Plump AS, Breslow JL, Ross R: Upregulation of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 at atherosclerosis-prone sites on the endothelium in the ApoE-deficient mouse. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1998;18:842–851.
  19. Ross R: Atherosclerosis – an inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med 1999;340:115–126.
  20. Smith JD, Trogan E, Ginsberg M, Grigaux C, Tian J, Miyata M: Decreased atherosclerosis in mice deficient in both macrophage colony-stimulating factor (op) and apolipoprotein E. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995;92:8264–8268.
  21. Edfeldt K, Swedenborg J, Hansson GK, Yan ZQ: Expression of toll-like receptors in human atherosclerotic lesions: a possible pathway for plaque activation. Circulation 2002;105:1158–1161.
  22. Binder CJ, Chang MK, Shaw PX, Miller YI, Hartvigsen K, Dewan A, Witztum JL: Innate and acquired immunity in atherogenesis. Nat Med 2002;8:1218–1226.
  23. Yan ZQ, Hansson GK: Innate immunity, macrophage activation, and atherosclerosis. Immunol Rev 2007;219:187–203.
  24. Hansson GK: Immune mechanisms in atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001;21:1876–1890.
  25. Houtkamp MA, van Der Wal AC, de Boer OJ, van Der Loos CM, de Boer PA, Moorman AF, Becker AE: Interleukin-15 expression in atherosclerotic plaques: An alternative pathway for T-cell activation in atherosclerosis? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001;21:1208–1213.
  26. Dansky HM, Charlton SA, Harper MM, Smith JD: T and B lymphocytes play a minor role in atherosclerotic plaque formation in the apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997;94:4642–4646.
  27. Daugherty A, Pure E, Delfel-Butteiger D, Chen S, Leferovich J, Roselaar SE, Rader DJ: The effects of total lymphocyte deficiency on the extent of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E–/– mice. J Clin Invest 1997;100:1575–1580.
  28. Hansson GK, Holm J, Jonasson L: Detection of activated T lymphocytes in the human atherosclerotic plaque. Am J Pathol 1989;135:169–175.
  29. Stemme S, Faber B, Holm J, Wiklund O, Witztum JL, Hansson GK: T lymphocytes from human atherosclerotic plaques recognize oxidized low density lipoprotein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995;92:3893–3897.
  30. Zhou X, Nicoletti A, Elhage R, Hansson GK: Transfer of CD4(+) T cells aggravates atherosclerosis in immunodeficient apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Circulation 2000;102:2919–2922.
  31. Buono C, Come CE, Stavrakis G, Maguire GF, Connelly PW, Lichtman AH: Influence of interferon-gamma on the extent and phenotype of diet-induced atherosclerosis in the LDLr-deficient mouse. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2003;23:454–460.
  32. Gupta S, Pablo AM, Jiang X, Wang N, Tall AR, Schindler C: IFN-gamma potentiates atherosclerosis in ApoE knock-out mice. J Clin Invest 1997;99:2752–2761.
  33. Whitman SC, Ravisankar P, Daugherty A: IFN-gamma deficiency exerts gender-specific effects on atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E–/– mice. J Interferon Cytokine Res 2002;22:661–670.
  34. Whitman SC, Ravisankar P, Elam H, Daugherty A: Exogenous interferon-gamma enhances atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E–/– mice. Am J Pathol 2000;157:1819–1824.
  35. Lee TS, Yen HC, Pan CC, Chau LY: The role of interleukin 12 in the development of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:734–742.
  36. Davenport P, Tipping PG: The role of interleukin-4 and interleukin-12 in the progression of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Am J Pathol 2003;163:1117–1125.
  37. Mallat Z, Corbaz A, Scoazec A, Graber P, Alouani S, Esposito B, Humbert Y, Chvatchko Y, Tedgui A: Interleukin-18/interleukin-18 binding protein signaling modulates atherosclerotic lesion development and stability. Circ Res 2001;89:E41–E45.
  38. Elhage R, Jawien J, Rudling M, Ljunggren HG, Takeda K, Akira S, Bayard F, Hansson GK: Reduced atherosclerosis in interleukin-18 deficient apolipoprotein E-knockout mice. Cardiovasc Res 2003;59:234–240.
  39. Whitman SC, Ravisankar P, Daugherty A: Interleukin-18 enhances atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice through release of interferon-gamma. Circ Res 2002;90:E34–E38.
  40. Xu Q, Kleindienst R, Waitz W, Dietrich H, Wick G: Increased expression of heat shock protein 65 coincides with a population of infiltrating T lymphocytes in atherosclerotic lesions of rabbits specifically responding to heat shock protein 65. J Clin Invest 1993;91:2693–2702.
  41. Benagiano M, D’Elios MM, Amedei A, Azzurri A, van der Zee R, Ciervo A, Rombola G, Romagnani S, Cassone A, Del Prete G: Human 60-kDa heat shock protein is a target autoantigen of T cells derived from atherosclerotic plaques. J Immunol 2005;174:6509–6517.
  42. Matsuura E, Kobayashi K, Matsunami Y, Shen L, Quan N, Makarova M, Suchkov SV, Ayada K, Oguma K, Lopez LR: Autoimmunity, infectious immunity, and atherosclerosis. J Clin Immunol 2009;29:714–721.
  43. Binder CJ, Hartvigsen K, Chang MK, Miller M, Broide D, Palinski W, Curtiss LK, Corr M, Witztum JL: IL-5 links adaptive and natural immunity specific for epitopes of oxidized LDL and protects from atherosclerosis. J Clin Invest 2004;114:427–437.
  44. Zhou X, Paulsson G, Stemme S, Hansson GK: Hypercholesterolemia is associated with a T helper (Th) 1/Th2 switch of the autoimmune response in atherosclerotic apo E-knockout mice. J Clin Invest 1998;101:1717–1725.
  45. Caligiuri G, Nicoletti A, Poirier B, Hansson GK: Protective immunity against atherosclerosis carried by B cells of hypercholesterolemic mice. J Clin Invest 2002;109:745–753.
  46. Huber SA, Sakkinen P, David C, Newell MK, Tracy RP: T helper-cell phenotype regulates atherosclerosis in mice under conditions of mild hypercholesterolemia. Circulation 2001;103:2610–2616.
  47. King VL, Szilvassy SJ, Daugherty A: Interleukin-4 deficiency decreases atherosclerotic lesion formation in a site-specific manner in female LDL receptor–/– mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2002;22:456–461.
  48. Daugherty A, Rateri DL: T lymphocytes in atherosclerosis: the yin-yang of Th1 and Th2 influence on lesion formation. Circ Res 2002;90:1039–1040.
  49. Abbas AK, Murphy KM, Sher A: Functional diversity of helper T lymphocytes. Nature 1996;383:787–793.
  50. He R, Oyoshi MK, Garibyan L, Kumar L, Ziegler SF, Geha RS: TSLP acts on infiltrating effector T cells to drive allergic skin inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2008;105:11875–11880.
  51. Mallat Z, Gojova A, Marchiol-Fournigault C, Esposito B, Kamate C, Merval R, Fradelizi D, Tedgui A: Inhibition of transforming growth factor-beta signaling accelerates atherosclerosis and induces an unstable plaque phenotype in mice. Circ Res 2001;89:930–934.
  52. Grainger DJ, Mosedale DE, Metcalfe JC, Bottinger EP: Dietary fat and reduced levels of TGFbeta1 act synergistically to promote activation of the vascular endothelium and formation of lipid lesions. J Cell Sci 2000;113:2355–2361.
  53. Lutgens E, Gijbels M, Smook M, Heeringa P, Gotwals P, Koteliansky VE, Daemen MJ: Transforming growth factor-beta mediates balance between inflammation and fibrosis during plaque progression. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2002;22:975–982.
  54. Mor A, Planer D, Luboshits G, Afek A, Metzger S, Chajek-Shaul T, Keren G, George J: Role of naturally occurring CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells in experimental atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2007;27:893–900.
  55. Ait-Oufella H, Salomon BL, Potteaux S, Robertson AK, Gourdy P, Zoll J, Merval R, Esposito B, Cohen JL, Fisson S, Flavell RA, Hansson GK, Klatzmann D, Tedgui A, Mallat Z: Natural regulatory T cells control the development of atherosclerosis in mice. Nat Med 2006;12:178–180.
  56. Sakaguchi S, Ono M, Setoguchi R, Yagi H, Hori S, Fehervari Z, Shimizu J, Takahashi T, Nomura T: Foxp3+ CD25+ CD4+ natural regulatory T cells in dominant self-tolerance and autoimmune disease. Immunol Rev 2006;212:8–27.
  57. Mallat Z, Besnard S, Duriez M, Deleuze V, Emmanuel F, Bureau MF, Soubrier F, Esposito B, Duez H, Fievet C, Staels B, Duverger N, Scherman D, Tedgui A: Protective role of interleukin-10 in atherosclerosis. Circ Res 1999;85:e17–e24.
  58. Pinderski Oslund LJ, Hedrick CC, Olvera T, Hagenbaugh A, Territo M, Berliner JA, Fyfe AI: Interleukin-10 blocks atherosclerotic events in vitro and in vivo. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:2847–2853.
  59. Caligiuri G, Rudling M, Ollivier V, Jacob MP, Michel JB, Hansson GK, Nicoletti A: Interleukin-10 deficiency increases atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and low-density lipoproteins in apolipoprotein e knockout mice. Mol Med 2003;9:10–17.
  60. Von Der Thusen JH, Kuiper J, Fekkes ML, De Vos P, Van Berkel TJ, Biessen EA: Attenuation of atherogenesis by systemic and local adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of interleukin-10 in LDLr–/– mice. FASEB J 2001;15:2730–2732.
  61. Homey B: After Th1/Th2 now comes Treg/Th17:Significance of T helper cells in immune response organization (in German). Hautarzt 2006;57:730–732.
  62. Stockinger B, Veldhoen M: Differentiation and function of Th17 T cells. Curr Opin Immunol 2007;19:281–286.
  63. Weaver CT, Hatton RD, Mangan PR, Harrington LE: IL-17 family cytokines and the expanding diversity of effector T cell lineages. Annu Rev Immunol 2007;25:821–852.
  64. Chen Z, Laurence A, Kanno Y, Pacher-Zavisin M, Zhu BM, Tato C, Yoshimura A, Hennighausen L, O’Shea JJ: Selective regulatory function of SOCS3 in the formation of IL-17-secreting T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006;103:8137–8142.
  65. Dong C: Th17 cells in development: an updated view of their molecular identity and genetic programming. Nat Rev Immunol 2008;8:337–348.
  66. Korn T, Bettelli E, Gao W, Awasthi A, Jager A, Strom TB, Oukka M, Kuchroo VK: IL-21 initiates an alternative pathway to induce proinflammatory T(h)17 cells. Nature 2007;448:484–487.
  67. Nurieva R, Yang XO, Martinez G, Zhang Y, Panopoulos AD, Ma L, Schluns K, Tian Q, Watowich SS, Jetten AM, Dong C: Essential autocrine regulation by IL-21 in the generation of inflammatory T cells. Nature 2007;448:480–483.
  68. Wei L, Laurence A, Elias KM, O’Shea JJ: IL-21 is produced by Th17 cells and drives IL-17 production in a STAT3-dependent manner. J Biol Chem 2007;282:34605–34610.
  69. Yang L, Anderson DE, Baecher-Allan C, Hastings WD, Bettelli E, Oukka M, Kuchroo VK, Hafler DA: IL-21 and TGF-beta are required for differentiation of human T(h)17 cells. Nature 2008;454:350–352.
  70. Zhou L, Ivanov, II, Spolski R, Min R, Shenderov K, Egawa T, Levy DE, Leonard WJ, Littman DR: IL-6 programs T(h)-17 cell differentiation by promoting sequential engagement of the IL-21 and IL-23 pathways. Nat Immunol 2007;8:967–974.
  71. Veldhoen M, Hocking RJ, Atkins CJ, Locksley RM, Stockinger B: TGFbeta in the context of an inflammatory cytokine milieu supports de novo differentiation of IL-17-producing T cells. Immunity 2006;24:179–189.
  72. Sutton C, Brereton C, Keogh B, Mills KH, Lavelle EC: A crucial role for interleukin (IL)-1 in the induction of IL-17-producing T cells that mediate autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Exp Med 2006;203:1685–1691.
  73. Schraml BU, Hildner K, Ise W, Lee WL, Smith WA, Solomon B, Sahota G, Sim J, Mukasa R, Cemerski S, Hatton RD, Stormo GD, Weaver CT, Russell JH, Murphy TL, Murphy KM: The AP-1 transcription factor Batf controls T(H)17 differentiation. Nature 2009;460:405–409.
  74. Tesmer LA, Lundy SK, Sarkar S, Fox DA: Th17 cells in human disease. Immunol Rev 2008;223:87–113.
  75. Huang SH, Frydas S, Kempuraj D, Barbacane RC, Grilli A, Boucher W, Letourneau R, Madhappan B, Papadopoulou N, Verna N, De Lutiis MA, Iezzi T, Riccioni G, Theoharides TC, Conti P: Interleukin-17 and the interleukin-17 family member network. Allergy Asthma Proc 2004;25:17–21.
  76. Gaffen SL, Kramer JM, Yu JJ, Shen F: The IL-17 cytokine family. Vitam Horm 2006;74:255–282.
  77. Lee J, Ho WH, Maruoka M, Corpuz RT, Baldwin DT, Foster JS, Goddard AD, Yansura DG, Vandlen RL, Wood WI, Gurney AL: IL-17E, a novel proinflammatory ligand for the IL-17 receptor homolog IL-17Rh1. J Biol Chem 2001;276:1660–1664.
  78. Fort MM, Cheung J, Yen D, Li J, Zurawski SM, Lo S, Menon S, Clifford T, Hunte B, Lesley R, Muchamuel T, Hurst SD, Zurawski G, Leach MW, Gorman DM, Rennick DM: IL-25 induces IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and Th2-associated pathologies in vivo. Immunity 2001;15:985–995.
  79. Ivanov II, McKenzie BS, Zhou L, Tadokoro CE, Lepelley A, Lafaille JJ, Cua DJ, Littman DR: The orphan nuclear receptor RORgammat directs the differentiation program of proinflammatory IL-17+ T helper cells. Cell 2006;126:1121–1133.
  80. Langrish CL, Chen Y, Blumenschein WM, Mattson J, Basham B, Sedgwick JD, McClanahan T, Kastelein RA, Cua DJ: IL-23 drives a pathogenic T cell population that induces autoimmune inflammation. J Exp Med 2005;201:233–240.
  81. Harrington LE, Hatton RD, Mangan PR, Turner H, Murphy TL, Murphy KM, Weaver CT: Interleukin 17-producing CD4+ effector T cells develop via a lineage distinct from the T helper type 1 and 2 lineages. Nat Immunol 2005;6:1123–1132.
  82. Liang SC, Long AJ, Bennett F, Whitters MJ, Karim R, Collins M, Goldman SJ, Dunussi-Joannopoulos K, Williams CM, Wright JF, Fouser LA: An IL-17F/A heterodimer protein is produced by mouse Th17 cells and induces airway neutrophil recruitment. J Immunol 2007;179:7791–7799.
  83. Wright JF, Guo Y, Quazi A, Luxenberg DP, Bennett F, Ross JF, Qiu Y, Whitters MJ, Tomkinson KN, Dunussi-Joannopoulos K, Carreno BM, Collins M, Wolfman NM: Identification of an interleukin 17F/17A heterodimer in activated human CD4+ T cells. J Biol Chem 2007;282:13447–13455.
  84. Chang SH, Dong C: A novel heterodimeric cytokine consisting of IL-17 and IL-17F regulates inflammatory responses. Cell Res 2007;17:435–440.
  85. Toy D, Kugler D, Wolfson M, Vanden Bos T, Gurgel J, Derry J, Tocker J, Peschon J: Cutting edge: interleukin 17 signals through a heteromeric receptor complex. J Immunol 2006;177:36–39.
  86. Mangan PR, Harrington LE, O’Quinn DB, Helms WS, Bullard DC, Elson CO, Hatton RD, Wahl SM, Schoeb TR, Weaver CT: Transforming growth factor-beta induces development of the T(h)17 lineage. Nature 2006;441:231–234.
  87. Tamachi T, Maezawa Y, Ikeda K, Kagami S, Hatano M, Seto Y, Suto A, Suzuki K, Watanabe N, Saito Y, Tokuhisa T, Iwamoto I, Nakajima H: IL-25 enhances allergic airway inflammation by amplifying a Th2 cell- dependent pathway in mice. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006;118:606–614.
  88. Jovanovic DV, Di Battista JA, Martel-Pelletier J, Jolicoeur FC, He Y, Zhang M, Mineau F, Pelletier JP: IL-17 stimulates the production and expression of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-beta and TNF-alpha, by human macrophages. J Immunol 1998;160:3513–3521.
  89. Ouyang W, Kolls JK, Zheng Y: The biological functions of T helper 17 cell effector cytokines in inflammation. Immunity 2008;28:454–467.
  90. Dong C: Diversification of T-helper-cell lineages: finding the family root of IL-17-producing cells. Nat Rev Immunol 2006;6:329–333.
  91. Song L, Schindler C: IL-6 and the acute phase response in murine atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 2004;177:43–51.
  92. Eid RE, Rao DA, Zhou J, Lo SF, Ranjbaran H, Gallo A, Sokol SI, Pfau S, Pober JS, Tellides G: Interleukin-17 and interferon-gamma are produced concomitantly by human coronary artery-infiltrating T cells and act synergistically on vascular smooth muscle cells. Circulation 2009;119:1424–1432.
  93. Cheng X, Yu X, Ding YJ, Fu QQ, Xie JJ, Tang TT, Yao R, Chen Y, Liao YH: The Th17/Treg imbalance in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Clin Immunol 2008;127:89–97.
  94. Xie JJ, Wang J, Tang TT, Chen J, Gao XL, Yuan J, Zhou ZH, Liao MY, Yao R, Yu X, Wang D, Cheng Y, Liao YH, Cheng X: The Th17/Treg functional imbalance during atherogenesis in ApoE(-/-) mice. Cytokine;49:185–193.
  95. de Boer OJ, van der Meer JJ, Teeling P, van der Loos CM, Idu MM, van Maldegem F, Aten J, van der Wal AC: Differential expression of interleukin-17 family cytokines in intact and complicated human atherosclerotic plaques. J Pathol 2009;220:499–508.
    External Resources
  96. Pejnovic N, Vratimos A, Lee SH, Popadic D, Takeda K, Akira S, Chan WL: Increased atherosclerotic lesions and Th17 in interleukin-18 deficient apolipoprotein E-knockout mice fed high-fat diet. Mol Immunol 2009;47:37–45.
  97. Smith E, Stark MA, Zarbock A, Burcin TL, Bruce AC, Vaswani D, Foley P, Ley K: Il-17a inhibits the expansion of IL-17A-producing T cells in mice through ‘short-loop’ inhibition via IL-17 receptor. J Immunol 2008;181:1357–1364.
  98. Yang Y, Weiner J, Liu Y, Smith AJ, Huss DJ, Winger R, Peng H, Cravens PD, Racke MK, Lovett-Racke AE: T-bet is essential for encephalitogenicity of both Th1 and Th17 cells. J Exp Med 2009;206:1549–1564.
  99. Smith E, Prasad KMR, Butcher M, Dobrian A, Kolls JK, Ley K, Galkina E: Blockade of IL-17A results in reduced atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice. Circulation 2010;121: 1746–1755.
  100. Nagarajan S: Fcgamma chain deficiency on hematopoietic cells ameliorates atherosclerosis in apoE-knockout mice by blocking Th17 responses. Keystone Symposia Advances in Molecular Mechanisms of Atherosclerosis, Banff, 2010, pp 88.
  101. Chen S, Shimada K, Crother T, Zhang W, Huang G, Arditi M: The role of nod/rip2 signaling and IL-17 in chlamydia pneumoniae (cpn) -mediated acceleration of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice. Keystone Symposia Advances in Molecular Mechanisms of Atherosclerosis, Banff, 2010, pp 76.