Cover

Anaphylaxis

Editor(s): Ring J. (Munich) 
Table of Contents
Vol. 95, No. , 2010
Section title: Mechanisms
Ring J (ed): Anaphylaxis. Chem Immunol Allergy. Basel, Karger, 2010, vol 95, pp 45–66
(DOI:10.1159/000315937)

Anaphylaxis: Mechanisms of Mast Cell Activation

Kalesnikoff J. · Galli S.J.
Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, Calif., USA

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

Anaphylaxis is a severe systemic allergic response that is rapid in onset and potentially lethal, and that typically is induced by an otherwise innocuous substance. In IgE-dependent and other examples of anaphylaxis, tissue mast cells and circulating basophilic granulocytes (basophils) are thought to represent major (if not the major) sources of the biologically active mediators that contribute to the pathology and, in unfortunate individuals, fatal outcome, of anaphylaxis. In this chapter, we will describe the mechanisms of mast cell (and basophil) activation in anaphylaxis, with a focus on IgE-dependent activation, which is thought to be responsible for most examples of antigen-induced anaphylaxis in humans. We will also discuss the use of mouse models to investigate the mechanisms that can contribute to anaphylaxis in that species in vivo, and the relevance of such mouse studies to human anaphylaxis.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Simons FE, Frew AJ, Ansotegui IJ, Bochner BS, Golden DB, Finkelman FD, Leung DY, Lotvall J, Marone G, Metcalfe DD, Muller U, Rosenwasser LJ, Sampson HA, Schwartz LB, van Hage M, Walls AF: Risk assessment in anaphylaxis: current and future approaches. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007;120:S2-S24
  2. Peavy RD, Metcalfe DD: understanding the mechanisms of anaphylaxis. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2008;8:310-315
  3. Bochner BS, Lichtenstein LM: Anaphylaxis. N Engl J Med 1991;324:1785-1790
  4. Finkelman FD: Anaphylaxis: lessons from mouse models. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007;120:506-515
  5. Galli SJ: Pathogenesis and management of anaphylaxis: current status and future challenges. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005;115:571-574
  6. Galli SJ, Kalesnikoff J, Grimbaldeston MA, Piliponsky AM, Williams CM, Tsai M: Mast cells as ‘tunable’ effector and immunoregulatory cells: recent advances. Annu Rev Immunol 2005;23:749-786
  7. Gould HJ, Sutton BJ: IgE in allergy and asthma today. Nat Rev Immunol 2008;8:205-217
  8. Kraft S, Kinet JP: New developments in FcεRI regulation, function and inhibition. Nat Rev Immunol 2007;7:365-378
  9. MacGlashan D, Jr: IgE receptor and signal transduction in mast cells and basophils. Curr Opin Immunol 2008;20:717-723
  10. Simons FE: Anaphylaxis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2008;121:S402-S407
  11. Kitamura Y, Go S, Hatanaka K: Decrease of mast cells in W/Wv mice and their increase by bone marrow transplantation. Blood 1978;52:447-452
  12. Grimbaldeston MA, Chen CC, Piliponsky AM, Tsai M, Tam SY, Galli SJ: Mast cell-deficient W-sash c-kit mutant Kitw-sh/w-sh mice as a model for investigating mast cell biology in vivo. Am J Pathol 2005;167:835-848
  13. Nigrovic PA, Gray DH, Jones T, Hallgren J, Kuo FC, Chaletzky B, Gurish M, Mathis D, Benoist C, Lee DM: genetic inversion in mast cell-deficient Wsh mice interrupts Corin and manifests as hematopoietic and cardiac aberrancy. Am J Pathol 2008;173:1693-16701
  14. Wolters PJ, Mallen-St Clair J, Lewis CC, Villalta SA, Baluk P, Erle DJ, Caughey GH: Tissue-selective mast cell reconstitution and differential lung gene expression in mast cell-deficient KitW-sh/KitW-sh sash mice. Clin Exp Allergy 2005;35:82-88
  15. Kalesnikoff J, Galli SJ: New developments in mast cell biology. Nat Immunol 2008;9:1215-1223
  16. Musch W, Wege AK, Mannel DN, Hehlgans T: Generation and characterization of a-chymase-Cre transgenic mice. Genesis 2008;46:163-166
  17. Scholten J, Hartmann K, Gerbaulet A, Krieg T, Muller W, Testa G, Roers A: Mast cell-specific Cre/ loxP-mediated recombination in vivo. Transgenic Res 2008;17:307-315
  18. Ha TY, Reed ND, Crowle PK: Immune response potential of mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1986;80:85-94
  19. Oettgen HC, Martin TR, Wynshaw-Boris A, Deng C, Drazen JM, Leder P: Active anaphylaxis in IgE-deficient mice. Nature 1994;370:367-370
  20. Dombrowicz D, Flamand V, Miyajima I, Ravetch JV, Galli SJ, Kinet JP: Absence of FcεRI a chain results in upregulation of FcγRIII-dependent mast cell degranulation and anaphylaxis. Evidence of competition between FcεRI and FcγRIII for limiting amounts of FcR ß and γ chains. J Clin Invest 1997;99:915-925
  21. Tsujimura Y, Obata K, Mukai K, Shindou H, Yoshida M, Nishikado H, Kawano Y, Minegishi Y, Shimizu T, Karasuyama H: Basophils play a pivotal role in immunoglobulin-G-mediated but not immunoglobulin-E-mediated systemic anaphylaxis. Immunity 2008;28:581-589
  22. Miyajima I, Dombrowicz D, Martin TR, Ravetch JV, Kinet JP, Galli SJ: Systemic anaphylaxis in the mouse can be mediated largely through IgG1 and FcγRIII. Assessment of the cardiopulmonary changes, mast cell degranulation, and death associated with active or IgE- or IgG1-dependent passive anaphylaxis. J Clin Invest 1997;99:901-914
  23. Kawakami T, Galli SJ: Regulation of mast-cell and basophil function and survival by IgE. Nat Rev Immunol 2002;2:773-786
  24. Grayson MH, Cheung D, Rohlfing MM, Kitchens R, Spiegel DE, Tucker J, Battaile JT, Alevy Y, Yan L, Agapov E, Kim EY, Holtzman MJ: Induction of high-affinity IgE receptor on lung dendritic cells during viral infection leads to mucous cell metaplasia. J Exp Med 2007;204:2759-2769
  25. Gilfillan AM, Peavy RD, Metcalfe DD: Amplification mechanisms for the enhancement of antigen-mediated mast cell activation. Immunol Res 2008;
  26. Rivera J, Fierro NA, Olivera A, Suzuki R: New insights on mast cell activation via the high affinity receptor for IgE. Adv Immunol 2008;98:85-120
  27. Liu Y, Zhu M, Nishida K, Hirano T, Zhang W: An essential role for RasGRP 1 in mast cell function and IgE-mediated allergic response. J Exp Med 2007;204:93-103
  28. Hong H, Kitaura J, Xiao W, Horejsi V, Ra C, Lowell CA, Kawakami Y, Kawakami T: The Src family kinase Hck regulates mast cell activation by suppressing an inhibitory Src family kinase Lyn. Blood 2007;110:2511-2519
  29. Baba Y, Nishida K, Fujii Y, Hirano T, Hikida M, Kurosaki T: Essential function for the calcium sensor STIM1 in mast cell activation and anaphylactic responses. Nat Immunol 2008;9:81-88
  30. Vig M, DeHaven WI, Bird GS, Billingsley JM, Wang H, Rao PE, Hutchings AB, Jouvin MH, Putney JW, Kinet JP: Defective mast cell effector functions in mice lacking the CRACM1 pore subunit of store-operated calcium release-activated calcium channels. Nat Immunol 2008;9:89-96
  31. Vennekens R, Olausson J, Meissner M, Bloch W, Mathar I, Philipp SE, Schmitz F, Weissgerber P, Nilius B, Flockerzi V, Freichel M: Increased IgE-dependent mast cell activation and anaphylactic responses in mice lacking the calcium-activated nonselective cation channel TRPM4. Nat Immunol 2007;8:312-320
  32. Guo Z, Turner C, Castle D: Relocation of the t-SNARE SNAP-23 from lamellipodia-like cell surface projections regulates compound exocytosis in mast cells. Cell 1998;94:537-548
  33. Logan MR, Odemuyiwa SO, Moqbel R: Understanding exocytosis in immune and inflammatory cells: the molecular basis of mediator secretion. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111:923-932
  34. Puri N, Roche PA: Mast cells possess distinct secretory granule subsets whose exocytosis is regulated by different SNARE isoforms. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2008;105:2580-2585
  35. Tiwari N, Wang CC, Brochetta C, Ke G, Vita F, Qi Z, Rivera J, Soranzo MR, Zabucchi G, Hong W, Blank U: VAMP-8 segregates mast cell-preformed mediator exocytosis from cytokine trafficking pathways. Blood 2008;111:3665-3674
  36. Sander LE, Frank SP, Bolat S, Blank U, Galli T, Bigalke H, Bischoff SC, Lorentz A: Vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)-7 and VAMP-8, but not VAMP-2 or VAMP-3, are required for activation-induced degranulation of mature human mast cells. Eur J Immunol 2008;38:855-863
  37. Suzuki K, Verma IM: Phosphorylation of SNAP-23 by IκB kinase 2 regulates mast cell degranulation. Cell 2008;134:485-495
  38. Kalesnikoff J, Rios EJ, Chen CC, Alejandro Barbieri M, Tsai M, Tam SY, Galli SJ: Roles of RabGEF1/ Rabex-5 domains in regulating FcεRI surface expression and FcεRI-dependent responses in mast cells. Blood 2007;109:5308-5317
  39. Rios EJ, Piliponsky AM, Ra C, Kalesnikoff J, Galli SJ: Rabaptin-5 regulates receptor expression and functional activation in mast cells. Blood 2008;112:4148-4157
  40. Leung WH, Bolland S: The inositol 5’-phosphatase SHIP-2 negatively regulates IgE-induced mast cell degranulation and cytokine production. J Immunol 2007;179:95-102
  41. Ong CJ, Ming-Lum A, Nodwell M, Ghanipour A, Yang L, Williams DE, Kim J, Demirjian L, Qasimi P, Ruschmann J, Cao LP, Ma K, Chung SW, Duronio V, Andersen RJ, Krystal G, Mui AL: Small-molecule agonists of SHIP1 inhibit the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway in hematopoietic cells. Blood 2007;110:1942-1949
  42. Bansal G, Xie Z, Rao S, Nocka KH, Druey KM: Suppression of immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic responses by regulator of G protein signaling 13. Nat Immunol 2008;9:73-80
  43. Bansal G, DiVietro JA, Kuehn HS, Rao S, Nocka KH, Gilfillan AM, Druey KM: RGS13 controls G protein-coupled receptor-evoked responses of human mast cells. J Immunol 2008;181:7882-7890
  44. Saxon A, Kepley C, Zhang K: ‘Accentuate the negative, eliminate the positive’: engineering allergy therapeutics to block allergic reactivity through negative signaling. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2008;121:320-325
  45. Mertsching E, Bafetti L, Hess H, Perper S, Giza K, Allen LC, Negrou E, Hathaway K, Hopp J, Chung J, Perret D, Shields M, Saxon A, Kehry MR: A mouse FcγFcε protein that inhibits mast cells through activation of FcγRIIB, SH2 domain-containing inositol phosphatase 1, and SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatases. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2008;121:441-447
  46. Conroy MC, Adkinson NF, Jr, Lichtenstein LM: Measurement of IgE on human basophils: relation to serum IgE and anti-IgE-induced histamine release. J Immunol 1977;118:1317-1321
  47. Malveaux FJ, Conroy MC, Adkinson NF, Jr, Lichtenstein LM: IgE receptors on human basophils, relationship to serum IgE concentration. J Clin Invest 1978;62:176-181
  48. Stallman PJ, Aalberse RC: Quantitation of basophil-bound IgE in atopic and nonatopic subjects. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1977;54:114-120
  49. Furuichi K, Rivera J, Isersky C: The receptor for immunoglobulin E on rat basophilic leukemia cells: effect of ligand binding on receptor expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1985;82:1522-1525
  50. Quarto R, Kinet JP, Metzger H: Coordinate synthesis and degradation of the α-, ß- and γ-subunits of the receptor for immunoglobulin E. Mol Immunol 1985;22:1045-1051
  51. Hsu C, MacGlashan D, Jr: IgE antibody up-regulates high affinity IgE binding on murine bone marrow-derived mast cells. Immunol Lett 1996;52:129-134
  52. Yamaguchi M, Lantz CS, Oettgen HC, Katona IM, Fleming T, Miyajima I, Kinet JP, Galli SJ: IgE enhances mouse mast cell FcεRI expression in vitro and in vivo: evidence for a novel amplification mechanism in IgE-dependent reactions. J Exp Med 1997;185:663-672
  53. Matsuda K, Piliponsky AM, Iikura M, Nakae S, Wang EW, Dutta SM, Kawakami T, Tsai M, Galli SJ: Monomeric IgE enhances human mast cell chemokine production: IL-4 augments and dexamethasone suppresses the response. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005;116:1357-1363
  54. James LC, Roversi P, Tawfik DS: Antibody multi-specificity mediated by conformational diversity. Science 2003;299:1362-1367
  55. Kepley CL, Youssef L, Andrews RP, Wilson BS, Oliver JM: Syk deficiency in nonreleaser basophils. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;104:279-284
  56. Vonakis BM, Gibbons S, Jr, Sora R, Langdon JM, MacDonald SM: Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol 5’ phosphatase is negatively associated with histamine release to human recombinant his-tamine-releasing factor in human basophils. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;108:822-831
  57. Yamashita Y, Charles N, Furumoto Y, Odom S, Yamashita T, Gilfillan AM, Constant S, Bower MA, Ryan JJ, Rivera J: Cutting edge: genetic variation influences FcεRI-induced mast cell activation and allergic responses. J Immunol 2007;179:740-743
  58. Hernandez-Hansen V, Mackay GA, Lowell CA, Wilson BS, Oliver JM: The Src kinase Lyn is a negative regulator of mast cell proliferation. J Leukoc Biol 2004;75:143-151
  59. Odom S, Gomez G, Kovarova M, Furumoto Y, Ryan JJ, Wright HV, Gonzalez-Espinosa C, Hibbs ML, Harder KW, Rivera J: Negative regulation of immunoglobulin E-dependent allergic responses by Lyn kinase. J Exp Med 2004;199:1491-1502
  60. Hibbs ML, Tarlinton DM, Armes J, Grail D, Hodgson G, Maglitto R, Stacker SA, Dunn AR: Multiple defects in the immune system of Lyn-deficient mice, culminating in autoimmune disease. Cell 1995;83:301-311
  61. Nishizumi H, Yamamoto T: Impaired tyrosine phosphorylation and Ca2+ mobilization, but not degranulation, in Lyn-deficient bone marrow-derived mast cells. J Immunol 1997;158:2350-2355
  62. Costa JJ, Demetri GD, Harrist TJ, Dvorak AM, Hayes DF, Merica EA, Menchaca DM, Gringeri AJ, Schwartz LB, Galli SJ: Recombinant human stem cell factor (kit ligand) promotes human mast cell and melanocyte hyperplasia and functional activation in vivo. J Exp Med 1996;183:2681-2686
  63. Brockow K, Jofer C, Behrendt H, Ring J: Anaphylaxis in patients with mastocytosis: a study on history, clinical features and risk factors in 120 patients. Allergy 2008;63:226-232
  64. Akin C, Scott LM, Kocabas CN, Kushnir-Sukhov N, Brittain E, Noel P, Metcalfe DD: Demonstration of an aberrant mast-cell population with clonal markers in a subset of patients with ‘idiopathic’ anaphylaxis. Blood 2007;110:2331-2333
  65. Tilley SL, Wagoner VA, Salvatore CA, Jacobson MA, Koller BH: Adenosine and inosine increase cutaneous vasopermeability by activating A3 receptors on mast cells. J Clin Invest 2000;105:361-367
  66. Laffargue M, Calvez R, Finan P, Trifilieff A, Barbier M, Altruda F, Hirsch E, Wymann MP: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ is an essential amplifier of mast cell function. Immunity 2002;16:441-451
  67. Feoktistov I, Biaggioni I: Adenosine A2b receptors evoke interleukin-8 secretion in human mast cells. An enprofylline-sensitive mechanism with implications for asthma. J Clin Invest 1995;96:1979-1986
  68. Hua X, Kovarova M, Chason KD, Nguyen M, Koller BH, Tilley SL: Enhanced mast cell activation in mice deficient in the A2b adenosine receptor. J Exp Med 2007;204:117-128
  69. Ryzhov S, Zaynagetdinov R, Goldstein AE, Novitskiy SV, Dikov MM, Blackburn MR, Biaggioni I, Feoktistov I: Effect of A2B adenosine receptor gene ablation on proinflammatory adenosine signaling in mast cells. J Immunol 2008;180:7212-7220
  70. Livingston M, Heaney LG, Ennis M: Adenosine, inflammation and asthma - a review. Inflamm Res 2004;53:171-178
  71. Polosa R, Holgate ST: Adenosine receptors as promising therapeutic targets for drug development in chronic airway inflammation. Curr Drug Targets 2006;7:699-706
  72. Spicuzza L, Di Maria G, Polosa R: Adenosine in the airways: implications and applications. Eur J Pharmacol 2006;533:77-88
  73. Holgate ST, Church MK, Lichtenstein LM: Allergy New York, Elsevier Health Sciences, 2006;
  74. Golden DB: Insect allergy in children. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2006;6:289-293
  75. Sampson HA, Mendelson L, Rosen JP: Fatal and near-fatal anaphylactic reactions to food in children and adolescents. N Engl J Med 1992;327:380-384
  76. Vercelli D: Genetic regulation of IgE responses: Achilles and the tortoise. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005;116:60-64
  77. Strait RT, Morris SC, Finkelman FD: IgG-blocking antibodies inhibit IgE-mediated anaphylaxis in vivo through both antigen interception and Fcγ RIIb cross-linking. J Clin Invest 2006;116:833-841


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50