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Vol. 2, No. 6, 2010
Issue release date: October 2010
Section title: Research Article
Editor's Choice -- Free Access
J Innate Immun 2010;2:560–575
(DOI:10.1159/000317134)

Rapid Neutrophil Destruction following Phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus

Kobayashi S.D.a · Braughton K.R.a · Palazzolo-Ballance A.M.a · Kennedy A.D.a · Sampaio E.d, g · Kristosturyan E.d · Whitney A.R.a · Sturdevant D.E.b · Dorward D.W.c · Holland S.M.d · Kreiswirth B.N.e · Musser J.M.f · DeLeo F.R.a
aLaboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, and Research Technologies Section, bGenomics and cMicroscopy Units, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Mont., dLaboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md., ePublic Health Research Institute and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, N.J., and fCenter for Molecular and Translational Human Infectious Diseases Research, Department of Pathology, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, Tex., USA; gLeprosy Laboratory, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
email Corresponding Author

Abstract

Mechanisms underlying the enhanced virulence phenotype of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) are incompletely defined, but presumably include evasion of killing by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs or neutrophils). To better understand this phenomenon, we investigated the basis of rapid PMN lysis after phagocytosis of USA300, a prominent CA-MRSA strain. Survival of USA300 clinical isolates after phagocytosis ultimately resulted in neutrophil lysis. PMNs containing ingested USA300 underwent morphological changes consistent with apoptosis, but lysed rapidly thereafter (within 6 h), whereas cells undergoing FAS-mediated apoptosis or phagocytosis-induced cell death remained intact. Phagosome membranes remained intact until the point of PMN destruction, suggesting lysis was not caused by escape of S. aureus from phagosomes or the cytolytic action of pore-forming toxins. Microarray analysis of the PMN transcriptome after phagocytosis of representative community-associated S. aureus and healthcare-associated MRSA strains revealed changes unique to community-associated S. aureus strains, such as upregulation of transcripts involved in regulation of calcium homeostasis. Collectively, the data suggest that neutrophil destruction after phagocytosis of USA300 is in part a form of programmed necrosis rather than direct lysis by S. aureus pore-forming toxins. We propose that the ability of CA-MRSA strains to induce programmed necrosis of neutrophils is a component of enhanced virulence.

© 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel


  

Key Words

  • Neutrophils
  • Bacterial infections
  • Host defense
  • Staphylococcus aureus

References

  1. Nauseef WM: How human neutrophils kill and degrade microbes: an integrated view. Immunol Rev 2007;219:88–102.
  2. DeLeo FR, Diep BA, Otto M: Host defense and pathogenesis in Staphylococcus aureus infections. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2009;23:17–34.
  3. Chambers HF, DeLeo FR: Waves of resistance: Staphylococcus aureus in the antibiotic era. Nat Rev Microbiol 2009;7:2464–2474.

    External Resources

  4. DeLeo FR, Otto M, Kreiswirth BN, Chambers HF: Community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Lancet 2010;375:1557–1568.
  5. Voyich JM, Braughton KR, Sturdevant DE, Whitney AR, Said-Salim B, Porcella SF, Long RD, Dorward DW, Gardner DJ, Kreiswirth BN, Musser JM, DeLeo FR: Insights into mechanisms used by Staphylococcus aureus to avoid destruction by human neutrophils. J Immunol 2005;175:3907–3919.
  6. Rogers DE, Tompsett R: The survival of staphylococci within human leukocytes. J Exp Med 1952;95:209–230.
  7. Gresham HD, Lowrance JH, Caver TE, Wilson BS, Cheung AL, Lindberg FP: Survival of Staphylococcus aureus inside neutrophils contributes to infection. J Immunol 2000;164:3713–3722.
  8. Palazzolo-Ballance AM, Reniere ML, Braughton KR, Sturdevant DE, Otto M, Kreiswirth BN, Skaar EP, DeLeo FR: Neutrophil microbicides induce a pathogen survival response in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Immunol 2008;180:500–509.
  9. Peschel A, Jack RW, Otto M, Collins LV, Staubitz P, Nicholson G, Kalbacher H, Nieuwenhuizen WF, Jung G, Tarkowski A, Van Kessel KP, Van Strijp JA: Staphylococcus aureus resistance to human defensins and evasion of neutrophil killing via the novel virulence factor MprF is based on modification of membrane lipids with l-lysine. J Exp Med 2001;193:1067–1076.
  10. Peschel A, Otto M, Jack RW, Kalbacher H, Jung G, Gotz F: Inactivation of the dlt operon in Staphylococcus aureus confers sensitivity to defensins, protegrins, and other antimicrobial peptides. J Biol Chem 1999;274:8405–8410.
  11. Diep BA, Gill SR, Chang RF, Phan TH, Chen JH, Davidson MG, Lin F, Lin J, Carleton HA, Mongodin EF, Sensabaugh GF, Perdreau-Remington F: Complete genome sequence of USA300, an epidemic clone of community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Lancet 2006;367:731–739.
  12. Kennedy AD, Otto M, Braughton KR, Whitney AR, Chen L, Mathema B, Mediavilla JR, Byrne KA, Parkins LD, Tenover FC, Kreiswirth BN, Musser JM, DeLeo FR: Epidemic community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: recent clonal expansion and diversification. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2008;105:1327–1332.
  13. Baba T: Genome and virulence determinants of high virulence community-acquired MRSA. Lancet 2002;359:1819–1827.
  14. Rizkallah MF, Tolaymat A, Martinez JS, Schlievert PM, Ayoub EM: Toxic shock syndrome caused by a strain of Staphylococcus aureus that produces enterotoxin C but not toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. Am J Dis Child 1989;143:848–849.
  15. Gill SR, Fouts DE, Archer GL, Mongodin EF, DeBoy RT, Ravel J, Paulsen IT, Kolonay JF, Brinkac L, Beanan M, Dodson RJ, Daugherty SC, Madupu R, Angiuoli SV, Durkin AS, Haft DH, Vamathevan J, Khouri H, Utterback T, Lee C, Dimitrov G, Jiang L, Qin H, Weidman J, Tran K, Kang K, Hance IR, Nelson KE, Fraser CM: Insights on evolution of virulence and resistance from the complete genome analysis of an early methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain and a biofilm-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strain. J Bacteriol 2005;187:2426–2438.
  16. Holden MTG, Feil EJ, Lindsay JA, Peacock SJ, Day NPJ, Enright MC, Foster TJ, Moore CE, Hurst L, Atkin R, Barron A, Bason N, Bentley SD, Chillingworth C, Chillingworth T, Churcher C, Clark L, Corton C, Cronin A, Doggett J, Dowd L, Feltwell T, Hance Z, Harris B, Hauser H, Holroyd S, Jagels K, James KD, Lennard N, Line A, Mayes R, Moule S, Mungall K, Ormond D, Quail MA, Rabbinowitsch E, Rutherford K, Sanders M, Sharp S, Simmonds M, Stevens K, Whitehead S, Barrell BG, Spratt BG, Parkhill J: Complete genomes of two clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains: evidence for the rapid evolution of virulence and drug resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004;101:9786–9791.
  17. Kobayashi SD, Voyich JM, Buhl CL, Stahl RM, DeLeo FR: Global changes in gene expression by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes during receptor-mediated phagocytosis: cell fate is regulated at the level of gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002;99:6901–6906.
  18. DeLeo FR, Allen LA, Apicella M, Nauseef WM: NADPH oxidase activation and assembly during phagocytosis. J Immunol 1999;163:6732–6740.
  19. Kobayashi SD, Braughton KR, Whitney AR, Voyich JM, Schwan TG, Musser JM, DeLeo FR: Bacterial pathogens modulate an apoptosis differentiation program in human neutrophils. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003;100:10948–10953.
  20. Voyich JM, Otto M, Mathema B, Braughton KR, Whitney AR, Welty D, Long RD, Dorward DW, Gardner DJ, Lina G, Kreiswirth BN, DeLeo FR: Is Panton-Valentine leukocidin the major virulence determinant in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disease? J Infect Dis 2006;194:1761–1770.
  21. Allen S, Sotos J, Sylte MJ, Czuprynski CJ: Use of Hoechst 33342 staining to detect apoptotic changes in bovine mononuclear phagocytes infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2001;8:460–464.
  22. Koziel J, iag-Gudowska A, Mikolajczyk T, Bzowska M, Sturdevant DE, Whitney AR, Shaw LN, DeLeo FR, Potempa J: Phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus by macrophages exerts cytoprotective effects manifested by the upregulation of antiapoptotic factors. PLoS ONE 2009;4:e5210.
  23. Diep BA, Palazzolo-Ballance AM, Tattevin P, Basuino L, Braughton KR, Whitney AR, Chen L, Kreiswirth BN, Otto M, DeLeo FR, Chambers HF: Contribution of Panton-Valentine leukocidin in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis. PLoS ONE 2008;3:e3198.
  24. Kobayashi SD, Voyich JM, Braughton KR, Whitney AR, Nauseef WM, Malech HL, DeLeo FR: Gene expression profiling provides insight into the pathophysiology of chronic granulomatous disease. J Immunol 2004;172:636–643.
  25. Kobayashi SD, Voyich JM, Somerville GA, Braughton KR, Malech HL, Musser JM, DeLeo FR: An apoptosis-differentiation program in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes facilitates resolution of inflammation. J Leukoc Biol 2003;73:315–322.
  26. Zhang B, Hirahashi J, Cullere X, Mayadas TN: Elucidation of molecular events leading to neutrophil apoptosis following phagocytosis: cross-talk between caspase 8, reactive oxygen species, and MAPK/ERK activation. J Biol Chem 2003;278:28443–28454.
  27. Conus S, Perozzo R, Reinheckel T, Peters C, Scapozza L, Yousefi S, Simon HU: Caspase-8 is activated by cathepsin D initiating neutrophil apoptosis during the resolution of inflammation. J Exp Med 2008;205:685–698.
  28. Coxon A, Rieu P, Barkalow FJ, Askari S, Sharpe AH, von Adrian UH, Arnaout MA, Mayadas TN: A novel role for the β2 integrin CD11b/CD18 in neutrophil apoptosis: a homeostatic mechanism in inflammation. Immunity 1996;5:653–666.
  29. Kobayashi SD, Voyich JM, Braughton KR, DeLeo FR: Down-regulation of proinflammatory capacity during apoptosis in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J Immunol 2003;170:3357–3368.
  30. Wang R, Braughton KR, Kretschmer D, Bach TH, Queck SY, Li M, Kennedy AD, Dorward DW, Klebanoff SJ, Peschel A, DeLeo FR, Otto M: Identification of novel cytolytic peptides as key virulence determinants for community-associated MRSA. Nat Med 2007;13:1510–1514.
  31. Konig B, Prevost G, Konig W: Composition of staphylococcal bi-component toxins determines pathophysiological reactions. J Med Microbiol 1997;46:479–485.
  32. Panton PN, Valentine FCO: Staphylococcal toxin. Lancet 1932;219:506–508.

    External Resources

  33. Fink SL, Cookson BT: Apoptosis, pyroptosis, and necrosis: mechanistic description of dead and dying eukaryotic cells. Infect Immun 2005;73:1907–1916.
  34. Labbe K, Saleh M: Cell death in the host response to infection. Cell Death Diff 2008;15:1339–1349.
  35. Bergsbaken T, Fink SL, Cookson BT: Pyroptosis: host cell death and inflammation. Nat Rev Microbiol 2009;7:99–109.
  36. Fernandes-Alnemri T, Wu J, Yu JW, Datta P, Miller B, Jankowski W, Rosenberg S, Zhang J, Alnemri ES: The pyroptosome: a supramolecular assembly of ASC dimers mediating inflammatory cell death via caspase-1 activation. Cell Death Diff 2007;14:1590–1604.
  37. Fink SL, Cookson BT: Caspase-1-dependent pore formation during pyroptosis leads to osmotic lysis of infected host macrophages. Cell Microbiol 2006;8:1812–1825.
  38. Franchi L, Eigenbrod T, Munoz-Planillo R, Nunez G: The inflammasome: a caspase-1-activation platform that regulates immune responses and disease pathogenesis. Nat Immunol 2009;10:241–247.
  39. Kroemer G, Galluzzi L, Vandenabeele P, Abrams J, Alnemri ES, Baehrecke EH, Blagosklonny MV, El-Deiry WS, Golstein P, Green DR, Hengartner M, Knight RA, Kumar S, Lipton SA, Malorni W, Nunez G, Peter ME, Tschopp J, Yuan J, Piacentini M, Zhivotovsky B, Melino G: Classification of cell death: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2009. Cell Death Differ 2009;16:3–11.
  40. Vanden Berghe T, Declercq W, Vandenabeele P: NADPH oxidases: new players in TNF-induced necrotic cell death. Mol Cell 2007;26:769–771.
  41. Festjens N, Vanden Berghe T, Vandenabeele P: Necrosis, a well-orchestrated form of cell demise: signalling cascades, important mediators and concomitant immune response. Biochim Biophys Acta 2006;1757:1371–1387.

  

Author Contacts

Dr. Frank R. DeLeo
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health
903 South 4th Street, Hamilton, MT 59840 (USA)
Tel. +1 406 363 9448, Fax +1 406 363 9394, E-Mail fdeleo@niaid.nih.gov

  

Article Information

S.D.K. and K.R.B. contributed equally to this paper.

Received: January 28, 2010
Accepted after revision: April 13, 2010
Published online: June 26, 2010
Number of Print Pages : 16
Number of Figures : 10, Number of Tables : 0, Number of References : 41
Additional supplementary material is available online - Number of Parts : 2

  

Publication Details

Journal of Innate Immunity

Vol. 2, No. 6, Year 2010 (Cover Date: October 2010)

Journal Editor: Herwald H. (Lund), Egesten A. (Lund)
ISSN: 1662-811X (Print), eISSN: 1662-8128 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/JIN


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Abstract

Mechanisms underlying the enhanced virulence phenotype of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) are incompletely defined, but presumably include evasion of killing by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs or neutrophils). To better understand this phenomenon, we investigated the basis of rapid PMN lysis after phagocytosis of USA300, a prominent CA-MRSA strain. Survival of USA300 clinical isolates after phagocytosis ultimately resulted in neutrophil lysis. PMNs containing ingested USA300 underwent morphological changes consistent with apoptosis, but lysed rapidly thereafter (within 6 h), whereas cells undergoing FAS-mediated apoptosis or phagocytosis-induced cell death remained intact. Phagosome membranes remained intact until the point of PMN destruction, suggesting lysis was not caused by escape of S. aureus from phagosomes or the cytolytic action of pore-forming toxins. Microarray analysis of the PMN transcriptome after phagocytosis of representative community-associated S. aureus and healthcare-associated MRSA strains revealed changes unique to community-associated S. aureus strains, such as upregulation of transcripts involved in regulation of calcium homeostasis. Collectively, the data suggest that neutrophil destruction after phagocytosis of USA300 is in part a form of programmed necrosis rather than direct lysis by S. aureus pore-forming toxins. We propose that the ability of CA-MRSA strains to induce programmed necrosis of neutrophils is a component of enhanced virulence.

© 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel


  

Author Contacts

Dr. Frank R. DeLeo
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health
903 South 4th Street, Hamilton, MT 59840 (USA)
Tel. +1 406 363 9448, Fax +1 406 363 9394, E-Mail fdeleo@niaid.nih.gov

  

Article Information

S.D.K. and K.R.B. contributed equally to this paper.

Received: January 28, 2010
Accepted after revision: April 13, 2010
Published online: June 26, 2010
Number of Print Pages : 16
Number of Figures : 10, Number of Tables : 0, Number of References : 41
Additional supplementary material is available online - Number of Parts : 2

  

Publication Details

Journal of Innate Immunity

Vol. 2, No. 6, Year 2010 (Cover Date: October 2010)

Journal Editor: Herwald H. (Lund), Egesten A. (Lund)
ISSN: 1662-811X (Print), eISSN: 1662-8128 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/JIN


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Research Article

Received: 5/8/2009
Accepted: 8/10/2009
Published online: 6/26/2010
Issue release date: October 2010

Number of Print Pages: 16
Number of Figures: 10
Number of Tables: 0

ISSN: 1662-811X (Print)
eISSN: 1662-8128 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/JIN


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Nauseef WM: How human neutrophils kill and degrade microbes: an integrated view. Immunol Rev 2007;219:88–102.
  2. DeLeo FR, Diep BA, Otto M: Host defense and pathogenesis in Staphylococcus aureus infections. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2009;23:17–34.
  3. Chambers HF, DeLeo FR: Waves of resistance: Staphylococcus aureus in the antibiotic era. Nat Rev Microbiol 2009;7:2464–2474.

    External Resources

  4. DeLeo FR, Otto M, Kreiswirth BN, Chambers HF: Community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Lancet 2010;375:1557–1568.
  5. Voyich JM, Braughton KR, Sturdevant DE, Whitney AR, Said-Salim B, Porcella SF, Long RD, Dorward DW, Gardner DJ, Kreiswirth BN, Musser JM, DeLeo FR: Insights into mechanisms used by Staphylococcus aureus to avoid destruction by human neutrophils. J Immunol 2005;175:3907–3919.
  6. Rogers DE, Tompsett R: The survival of staphylococci within human leukocytes. J Exp Med 1952;95:209–230.
  7. Gresham HD, Lowrance JH, Caver TE, Wilson BS, Cheung AL, Lindberg FP: Survival of Staphylococcus aureus inside neutrophils contributes to infection. J Immunol 2000;164:3713–3722.
  8. Palazzolo-Ballance AM, Reniere ML, Braughton KR, Sturdevant DE, Otto M, Kreiswirth BN, Skaar EP, DeLeo FR: Neutrophil microbicides induce a pathogen survival response in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Immunol 2008;180:500–509.
  9. Peschel A, Jack RW, Otto M, Collins LV, Staubitz P, Nicholson G, Kalbacher H, Nieuwenhuizen WF, Jung G, Tarkowski A, Van Kessel KP, Van Strijp JA: Staphylococcus aureus resistance to human defensins and evasion of neutrophil killing via the novel virulence factor MprF is based on modification of membrane lipids with l-lysine. J Exp Med 2001;193:1067–1076.
  10. Peschel A, Otto M, Jack RW, Kalbacher H, Jung G, Gotz F: Inactivation of the dlt operon in Staphylococcus aureus confers sensitivity to defensins, protegrins, and other antimicrobial peptides. J Biol Chem 1999;274:8405–8410.
  11. Diep BA, Gill SR, Chang RF, Phan TH, Chen JH, Davidson MG, Lin F, Lin J, Carleton HA, Mongodin EF, Sensabaugh GF, Perdreau-Remington F: Complete genome sequence of USA300, an epidemic clone of community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Lancet 2006;367:731–739.
  12. Kennedy AD, Otto M, Braughton KR, Whitney AR, Chen L, Mathema B, Mediavilla JR, Byrne KA, Parkins LD, Tenover FC, Kreiswirth BN, Musser JM, DeLeo FR: Epidemic community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: recent clonal expansion and diversification. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2008;105:1327–1332.
  13. Baba T: Genome and virulence determinants of high virulence community-acquired MRSA. Lancet 2002;359:1819–1827.
  14. Rizkallah MF, Tolaymat A, Martinez JS, Schlievert PM, Ayoub EM: Toxic shock syndrome caused by a strain of Staphylococcus aureus that produces enterotoxin C but not toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. Am J Dis Child 1989;143:848–849.
  15. Gill SR, Fouts DE, Archer GL, Mongodin EF, DeBoy RT, Ravel J, Paulsen IT, Kolonay JF, Brinkac L, Beanan M, Dodson RJ, Daugherty SC, Madupu R, Angiuoli SV, Durkin AS, Haft DH, Vamathevan J, Khouri H, Utterback T, Lee C, Dimitrov G, Jiang L, Qin H, Weidman J, Tran K, Kang K, Hance IR, Nelson KE, Fraser CM: Insights on evolution of virulence and resistance from the complete genome analysis of an early methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain and a biofilm-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strain. J Bacteriol 2005;187:2426–2438.
  16. Holden MTG, Feil EJ, Lindsay JA, Peacock SJ, Day NPJ, Enright MC, Foster TJ, Moore CE, Hurst L, Atkin R, Barron A, Bason N, Bentley SD, Chillingworth C, Chillingworth T, Churcher C, Clark L, Corton C, Cronin A, Doggett J, Dowd L, Feltwell T, Hance Z, Harris B, Hauser H, Holroyd S, Jagels K, James KD, Lennard N, Line A, Mayes R, Moule S, Mungall K, Ormond D, Quail MA, Rabbinowitsch E, Rutherford K, Sanders M, Sharp S, Simmonds M, Stevens K, Whitehead S, Barrell BG, Spratt BG, Parkhill J: Complete genomes of two clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains: evidence for the rapid evolution of virulence and drug resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004;101:9786–9791.
  17. Kobayashi SD, Voyich JM, Buhl CL, Stahl RM, DeLeo FR: Global changes in gene expression by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes during receptor-mediated phagocytosis: cell fate is regulated at the level of gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002;99:6901–6906.
  18. DeLeo FR, Allen LA, Apicella M, Nauseef WM: NADPH oxidase activation and assembly during phagocytosis. J Immunol 1999;163:6732–6740.
  19. Kobayashi SD, Braughton KR, Whitney AR, Voyich JM, Schwan TG, Musser JM, DeLeo FR: Bacterial pathogens modulate an apoptosis differentiation program in human neutrophils. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003;100:10948–10953.
  20. Voyich JM, Otto M, Mathema B, Braughton KR, Whitney AR, Welty D, Long RD, Dorward DW, Gardner DJ, Lina G, Kreiswirth BN, DeLeo FR: Is Panton-Valentine leukocidin the major virulence determinant in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disease? J Infect Dis 2006;194:1761–1770.
  21. Allen S, Sotos J, Sylte MJ, Czuprynski CJ: Use of Hoechst 33342 staining to detect apoptotic changes in bovine mononuclear phagocytes infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2001;8:460–464.
  22. Koziel J, iag-Gudowska A, Mikolajczyk T, Bzowska M, Sturdevant DE, Whitney AR, Shaw LN, DeLeo FR, Potempa J: Phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus by macrophages exerts cytoprotective effects manifested by the upregulation of antiapoptotic factors. PLoS ONE 2009;4:e5210.
  23. Diep BA, Palazzolo-Ballance AM, Tattevin P, Basuino L, Braughton KR, Whitney AR, Chen L, Kreiswirth BN, Otto M, DeLeo FR, Chambers HF: Contribution of Panton-Valentine leukocidin in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis. PLoS ONE 2008;3:e3198.
  24. Kobayashi SD, Voyich JM, Braughton KR, Whitney AR, Nauseef WM, Malech HL, DeLeo FR: Gene expression profiling provides insight into the pathophysiology of chronic granulomatous disease. J Immunol 2004;172:636–643.
  25. Kobayashi SD, Voyich JM, Somerville GA, Braughton KR, Malech HL, Musser JM, DeLeo FR: An apoptosis-differentiation program in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes facilitates resolution of inflammation. J Leukoc Biol 2003;73:315–322.
  26. Zhang B, Hirahashi J, Cullere X, Mayadas TN: Elucidation of molecular events leading to neutrophil apoptosis following phagocytosis: cross-talk between caspase 8, reactive oxygen species, and MAPK/ERK activation. J Biol Chem 2003;278:28443–28454.
  27. Conus S, Perozzo R, Reinheckel T, Peters C, Scapozza L, Yousefi S, Simon HU: Caspase-8 is activated by cathepsin D initiating neutrophil apoptosis during the resolution of inflammation. J Exp Med 2008;205:685–698.
  28. Coxon A, Rieu P, Barkalow FJ, Askari S, Sharpe AH, von Adrian UH, Arnaout MA, Mayadas TN: A novel role for the β2 integrin CD11b/CD18 in neutrophil apoptosis: a homeostatic mechanism in inflammation. Immunity 1996;5:653–666.
  29. Kobayashi SD, Voyich JM, Braughton KR, DeLeo FR: Down-regulation of proinflammatory capacity during apoptosis in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J Immunol 2003;170:3357–3368.
  30. Wang R, Braughton KR, Kretschmer D, Bach TH, Queck SY, Li M, Kennedy AD, Dorward DW, Klebanoff SJ, Peschel A, DeLeo FR, Otto M: Identification of novel cytolytic peptides as key virulence determinants for community-associated MRSA. Nat Med 2007;13:1510–1514.
  31. Konig B, Prevost G, Konig W: Composition of staphylococcal bi-component toxins determines pathophysiological reactions. J Med Microbiol 1997;46:479–485.
  32. Panton PN, Valentine FCO: Staphylococcal toxin. Lancet 1932;219:506–508.

    External Resources

  33. Fink SL, Cookson BT: Apoptosis, pyroptosis, and necrosis: mechanistic description of dead and dying eukaryotic cells. Infect Immun 2005;73:1907–1916.
  34. Labbe K, Saleh M: Cell death in the host response to infection. Cell Death Diff 2008;15:1339–1349.
  35. Bergsbaken T, Fink SL, Cookson BT: Pyroptosis: host cell death and inflammation. Nat Rev Microbiol 2009;7:99–109.
  36. Fernandes-Alnemri T, Wu J, Yu JW, Datta P, Miller B, Jankowski W, Rosenberg S, Zhang J, Alnemri ES: The pyroptosome: a supramolecular assembly of ASC dimers mediating inflammatory cell death via caspase-1 activation. Cell Death Diff 2007;14:1590–1604.
  37. Fink SL, Cookson BT: Caspase-1-dependent pore formation during pyroptosis leads to osmotic lysis of infected host macrophages. Cell Microbiol 2006;8:1812–1825.
  38. Franchi L, Eigenbrod T, Munoz-Planillo R, Nunez G: The inflammasome: a caspase-1-activation platform that regulates immune responses and disease pathogenesis. Nat Immunol 2009;10:241–247.
  39. Kroemer G, Galluzzi L, Vandenabeele P, Abrams J, Alnemri ES, Baehrecke EH, Blagosklonny MV, El-Deiry WS, Golstein P, Green DR, Hengartner M, Knight RA, Kumar S, Lipton SA, Malorni W, Nunez G, Peter ME, Tschopp J, Yuan J, Piacentini M, Zhivotovsky B, Melino G: Classification of cell death: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2009. Cell Death Differ 2009;16:3–11.
  40. Vanden Berghe T, Declercq W, Vandenabeele P: NADPH oxidases: new players in TNF-induced necrotic cell death. Mol Cell 2007;26:769–771.
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